A group of semi-nomadic people who came from the steppes (Dry lands that stretched north of the Caucasus.
Indo- European Language
..... was the source of the main languages of Europe, Southwest Asia, and South Asia. English, Spanish, Persian, and Hindi can all trace their origins back to the Indo- European languages.
Migrations of the Indo- Europeans
For reasons unknown* the Indo- Europeans migrated, the movement of people from one region to another. Didn't happen all at one, but inwaves over a long period of time.
(*The grasslands might have dried up, human and or animal population might have grown too large to adequately feed, an attempt to escape invaders, or an outbreak of disease.)
By 2000 BC a group of Indo- Europeans called _______, occupied Anatolia, also called Asia Minor. Seperate city-states came together to form an empire in 1650 BC, the capital was Hattusas. It dominated Southwest Asia for 450 years. They occupied Babylon and struggled for control of Northern Syria with the Egyptians. Despite their military might, around 1190 BC, after waves and waves of invasions from tribes of the north, Hittitie supremacy ended.
A huge peninsula in modern Turkey that juts out into the Black and Mediterranean Seas. A high, rocky plateau, rich in timber and agriculture.
Akkadian language from the Babylonians for international use. Ideas about literature, art, politics, and law from the Mesopotamians. But alwast managed to give the idea a distinct twist. Their own legal code was similar to Hammurabi's but it was more lenient (forgiving).
Hittites War Technology
Hittities had superb war skills with weapons, such as chariots and iron work. Chariots were light and easily manuevered even at high speeds. Hittities discovered the purification process of iron called smelting. Ancient people knew of iron and obtained it from meteorites. But in 1500 BC Hittities discovered this technique and kept it a secret to further aide them in their military conquests.
Another group of Indo- Europeans crossed into the Indus River Valley of India in 1500 BC. They left little archeological records, but their holy scriptures opened a door to life in their civilization
The sacred literature of the Aryans. It is a collection of four prayers, magical spells, and instructions for preforming rituals. The most important is the Rig Veda, and it contains 1028 lines devoted to Aryan Gods. For many years, no written form exised to write these on. It was a verbal tradition, and if a prayer was said incorrectly, terrible consequences would arise.
The term the Aryans used to call the dark skinned natives of India, it means dark, in a reference to their skin color. It eventually came to mean slave.
______ were taller, lighter skinned, and spoke a different language. They didnt have a written system unlike the vast majority of other civilizations of that area and time. They were pastoral people who counted their wealth in cows.
____ were town dwellers who lived in communities surrounded and protected by walls. They worshipped life-giving principles, such as the 'Great God', Shiva and various other mother goddesses.
When the Aryans arrived in India, they were divided into 3 ______ _______. Brahmins; priests; Kshatriya, rulers and warriors; Vaishyas, peasants and traders. At first they mixed freely. Eventually, non-Aryan craftsmen and laborers formed a 4th group, called the Shudras. Rules were made more rigid, Shudras did work the rest didnt want to do. Varna was a distinguishing feature in this system.
Castes for Life
Castes became more complex with hundreds of subdivisions. You were born into that caste for life. Your membership determined your everyday life, who they could marry,and who they could eat with. Ritual purity, ex habits of eating and washing that made a person physically and spiritually clean, became all important.
Those who were impure because of their job, ditch diggers, butchers, trash men, lived outside of the caste structure. Their touch endangered the ritual purity of others.
This major kingdom arose when minor kings struggled for land and power. Under a series of ambitious kings, this civilization began expanding in 6th century BC and by 2nd century BC it had expanded south and occupied most of the Indian Subcontinent.
One of the greatest epics of India, took place in India and describes the struggle as the Aryans relentlessly moved south. Its main charecters were 2 cousins, Pandavas and Kauravas. This epic is 106,000 verses make it the longest poem in the world. For several hundred years, it survived as an oral tradition. The poem suggest cultural blending between the Aryans and non- Aryans. Krishna, a semi- divine hero is described as dark faced.
A semi- divine hero of the epic Mahabharata, he questioned the place of gods and human beins in the world. These speculations caused the religions in India to change.
A collection of beliefs that slowly developed over a long period of time. Some aspects can be traced back to ancient times.Scholars have tried to organize the many popular cults, beliefs, and traditions into one grand system of beliefs, but it has yet to be achieved.
The scholars questioning of the Vedas, and if they had a hidden meaning. What is the nature of reality? What is mortality? Is there eternal life? What is the soul? This commentary was written and pulished, called the _______. They are written as dialogues between students and teachers.
When you understand the relationship between atman and Brahman you achieve moksha, a release from life in this world. It doesnt tkae one lifetime to achieve moksha.
The rebirth of an individual soul or spirit, it usually is born again until moksha is achieved.