Operational Planning 2
Terms in this set (35)
Cabinet Office (2005) Central Government Arrangements for Responding to an Emergency - three types of emergency
1) Significant emergency - level 1
2) Serious emergency - level 2
3) Catastrophic emergency - level 3
The Central Government's Concept of Operations
It describes how the UK central government response will be organised, and the relationship between the central, sub-national and local tiers in England, as well as the relationship between the UK central government and the devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
It focuses primarily on the response to no-notice or short notice emergencies requiring UK central government engagement, although the approach outlined here can be adapted to manage the response to other crises.
Significant emergency - level 1
A wider focus which requires central government involvement or support, primarily from a lead government department (Lead Government Department) or a devolved administration, alongside the work of the emergency services, local authorities and other organisations.
There is however no actual or potential requirement for a collective central government response
Serious emergency - level 2
One which has, or threatens, a wide and/or prolonged impact requiring sustained central government coordination and support from a number of departments and agencies, usually including the regional tier in England and where appropriate, the devolved administrations.
The central government response to such an emergency would be coordinated from the Cabinet Office
Briefing Rooms (COBR), under the leadership of the lead government department;
Catastrophic emergency - level 3
One which has an exceptionally high and potentially widespread impact and requires immediate central government direction and support.
Characteristics might include a top down response in circumstances where the local response had been
overwhelmed, or the use of emergency powers were required.
Police response to a major incident
Co-ordinate multi agency response
Secure and Preserve Evidence at Scene
Assist in 'returning to normality'
Any emergency that requires the implementation of special arrangements by one or more of the emergency services and will generally include the involvement, either directly or indirectly, of large numbers of people
Examples of major incidents
4 June 2017 - Seven people have been killed and at least 48 injured in a terror incident in London in which three male attackers were shot dead by police.
28 August 2017 - More than 100 people have been treated in hospital after a chemical 'haze' effected beachgoers in East Sussex.
First officer at the scene: SADCHALETS
Safety - is it safe to enter the area? RV point, exit etc
Assess and inform - assess the situation and inform the control room
Declare - consider declaring a major incident
Casualties - survivors (uninjured) survivors (injured) evacuees or dead
Hazards - utilities, explosives, entry and exit
Access - to and from, through cordons
Location - of incident, victims etc
Emergency services required - which ones?
Type of incident
Start a log
Incident: bronze inspector
- RV points
- Traffic control
- Marshalling (emergency vehicle holding area)
- Set by the most senior officer at the time of the incident based on the most information available to that officer
- The FIM will usually be that first gold commander but in most instances there will be short term view of the strategy
Based upon a tiered response:
- Tier 3 - National level
- Tier 2 - Regional level
- Tier 1 - Local level
Each tier has its own key roles, structures and processes which facilitate effective mobilisation (working together for common standards)
The National Police Co-ordination Centre
Responsible for mobilising police assets. It is not limited to uniform response and the mobilisation of crime assets can be challenging, particularly when the length of an investigation is not known from the outset. The centre maintains an oversight of national capacity and capability of specialist policing roles and assesses these in relation to the Strategic Policing Requirement (SPR) and National Policing Requirement (NPR).
LRF (local resilience forum) or gold strategy group for effective multi-agency response. The Act ensures that category 1 and 2 responders work together to enable eachother to fill their requirements under the act.
LRF (local resilience forum)
This is the platform for category 1 and 2 responders to meet, discuss and agree on tactical options to mitigate threat, risk and harm.
LRF meets every 6 weeks and CAT 1 & CAT 2 chief officers or appropriate representation must be made at the forum.
Structure of responsibility depending on severity of incident
COBR - cabinet's office briefing rooms (designated lead government department response will be co-ordinated through COBR
Command and control
Gold is the commander in overall charge of each service, responsible for formulating the strategy for the incident.
Each Gold has overall command of the resources of their own organisation, but delegates tactical decisions to their respective Silver(s).
At the outset of the incident Gold will determine the strategy and record a strategy statement. This will need to be monitored and subject to ongoing review.
Silver will attend the scene, take charge and be responsible for formulating the tactics to be adopted by their service to achieve the strategy set by Gold. Silver should not become personally involved with activities close to the incident, but remain detached.
There will be occasions when Police Silver will be centrally based at Special Operations Room and Bronze Scene Commander will attend the scene and fulfill the function normally undertaken by Police Silver.
This circumstance will arise where:
There are multiple simultaneous scenes where a coordinated tactical response across all scenes is required; or
An incident occurs where a command structure is already in place for a pre planned event / operation e.g. a major incident during a sporting event.
Bronze will control and deploy the resources of their respective service within a geographical sector or specific role and implement the tactics formulated by Silver.
As the incident progresses and more resources attend the RVP, the level of supervision will increase in proportion.
As senior managers arrive they will be assigned functions within the Gold, Silver and Bronze structure.
Senior officers arriving at their respective command/control vehicles are to establish contact with their incident commanders and should also make contact with the Police Silver in order to notify any transfer of command.
It is vital that both Silver (Tactical) and Bronze (Operational) commanders of each service are easily identifiable on the incident ground and that any identification (Tabard) is transferred when the command officers change.
By using this universal structure, the emergency services will be able to communicate with each other and understand each other's functions and authority.
Principles of effective response and recovery
8 guiding principles:
Principles of effective response and recovery can be linked to 7 protection duties from the Act
Communicating with the public
Business Continuity Management
Advice to Business
Ongoing risk identification and analysis is essential to the anticipation and management of the direct, indirect and interdependent consequences of emergencies.
All organisations and individuals that might have a role to play in emergency response and recovery should be properly prepared and be clear about their roles and responsibilities.
Decisions should be taken at the lowest appropriate level, with co-ordination at the highest necessary level.
Local agencies are the building blocks of the response to and recovery from an emergency of any scale.
Clarity of purpose comes from a strategic aim and supporting objectives that are agreed, understood and sustained by all involved. This will enable the prioritisation and focus of the response and recovery effort.
Information is critical to emergency response and recovery and the collation, assessment, verification and dissemination of information must be underpinned by information management systems. These systems need to support single and multi-agency decision making and the external provision of information that will allow members of the public to make informed decisions to ensure their safety.
Effective co-ordination should be exercised between and within organisations and levels (ie local and national) in order to produce a coherent, integrated effort.
Flexibility and effectiveness depends on positive engagement and information sharing between all agencies and at all levels.
Emergency response and recovery should be grounded in the existing functions of organisations and familiar ways of working, albeit on a larger scale, to a faster tempo and in more testing circumstances.
Joint Agency Decision Making Model
Centre: working together, saving lives and reducing harm
Gather information and intelligence
Assess risks and develop a working strategy
Consider powers, policies and procedures
Identify options and contingencies
Take action and review what happened
Scene access control - provides focal point for support services prior to entering area
I.C. (Inner Cordon) This secures the hazard and potential crime scene.
Initially it will be cleared by police and Fire Brigade of all non-essential people
O.C. (Outer Cordon) This forms a controlled area around the inner cordon.
Only vetted people have access.
Joint Emergency Services Control Centre (JESCC)
RV Point (Rendez-vous point): First point for emergency staff and vehicles arriving at the scene, prior to deployment within the scene.
This will normally be established within the outer cordon and will be under the control of a
police officer wearing the appropriate reflective tabard.
P.Z. Pedestrian Zone
Cordons are established around the scene for the following reasons,
• Guard the scene;
• Protect the public;
• Control the sightseers;
• Prevent unauthorised interference with the investigation and
• Facilitate the operations of the emergency services and other agencies.
Safety and security variables
Thinking of this country in particular, this will include:
- The weather
- Public reaction
- The media
- Environment (lakes, forestry etc)
- Time of day/week
Previous contingency plans
Contingency plan in place? (A - file)
Has there been a plan prepared in relation to the incident being dealt with?
E.g. there is an emergency plan in relation to an 'accident' occurring in the railway tunnel between Cardiff & Caerphilly (reasonable foreseeability)