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113 terms

AP World History Unit 1 Test

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Romans
The Seleucids were finally defeated in 83 B.C.E. by the
victory of Cyrus over Lydia
The major early turning point in the rise of the Persian Empire was the
Achaemenids, Seleucids, Parthians, Sasanids
Which of the following lists of the Persian empires is correct chronologically?
as a gift from Ahura Mazda that should be enjoyed
Zarathustra viewed the material world
Angra Mainyu
Zarathustra talked about the battle between the "wise lord" Ahurda Mazda and the evil spirit
Parthian
Which Iranian state followed the Achaemenids and rivaled the Seleucids in greatness?
Arab warriors
The Sasanids were deafeted in 651 B.C.E. by
Darius
The greatest of the Achaemenid emperors was
Persian administrative units
Satrapies were
Persepolis
The magnificent capital of the Persian Empire constructed by Darius was
Croesus
The leader of the Lydians who fell to Cyrus was
the view of the material world as a place of temptation that had to be ignored
Which of the following basic tenets of Zoroastrianism did not influence later religions?
Seleucid Empire
The empire, comprising most of the old Achaemenid state, that was taken by a general of Alexander the Great was the
Darius
The Persian king who regularized tax levies and standardized laws was
Mithradates I
The greatest Parthian ruler was
Mesopotamians
In organizing their empire, Persian rulers relied heavily on techniques of administration from the
Cyrus
The founder of the Achaemenid Empire was
a Persian loss
The battle of Marathon in 490 B.C.E. proved to be
allowed to spread through its own merits
Zoroastrianism was
Xerxes
The king who failed to follow the normal Persian governing policy of toleration was
Zarathustra's compositions
The Gathas were
the Royal Road
The center of the Persian communications networks was
went further than the Persian emperors in their efforts to foster cultural unity
The Qin and Han dynasties
Qin Shihuangdi
The Chinese emperor who was notorious for his hatred of Confucianism and for his burning of books was
the gap between the rich and the poor grew dangerously large
As the Han dynasty became more powerful and wealthy
Wang Mang
carried out reforms so revolutionary that he is known as the "socialist emperor"
clear and strict laws
Shang Yang and Han Feizi hoped to control China's subjects by
Daoism
The philosophy that criticized social activism and, instead, proposed a life of reflection and introspection
human nature is essentially good
At the heart of Mencius's philosophy was the belief that
Sima Qian
the first great Chinese historian
arose from the proper ordering of human relationships
Confucius believed that political and social harmony
junzi
Confucian "superior individuals" who took an active role in public affairs
xiao
the Chinese concept of filial piety, which was central to the family structure
became core texts of traditional Chinese education
Through the efforts of Confucius, the literary works of the Zhou period
wuwei
disengagement from the affairs of the world
Daodejing
The most important text of Daoism
Legalism
What was the school of philosophical thought that returned order to China after the Period of Warring States?
support of traditional learning
Which one of the following was not one of Qin Shihuangdi's policies?
a continuation of Qin policies of centralization
The Han philosophy of rule was
establishing an imperial university
In 124 B.C.E. Han Wudi transformed China by
established the principle of collective responsibility
In an effort to bring about effective government control, the Legalists
dao
Chinese philosophers often spoke of the following term, which means "the way"
li-passion
Which of the following Confucian terms and its translations is NOT correct?
Alexander of Macedon
In 327 BCE India was thrown into political chaos by the invasion of
Magadha
The kingdom that played a leading role in Indian unification, after the withdrawal of Alexander of Macedon, was
Brahmins
Ancient Indian religion revolved around ritual sacrifices offered by whom?
the fact that they did not recognize social hierarchies based on caste
The greatest contribution of the Jains was
ahisma
The Jains adhered to the principle of nonviolence to other living things or souls, which is expressed in the word
Bhagavad Gita
The Indian work that deals with a dialogue between the warrior, Arjuna, and his charioteer, Krishna, is the
reflected the increasingly materialistic character of Indian society
The beliefs of the Charvakas
that the gods were figments of the imagination
The Charvaka sect believed
Persians
The Indians political scene changed dramatically in 520 BCE when new administrative techniques were introduced after the invasion of the
Kalinga
The Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, fought his bloodiest battle against
returned to a series of regional kingdoms
After the collapse of the Mauryan Empire, India
Chandra Gupta
The year 320 CE saw the creation of the Gupta dynasty by
understanding the rhythms of the monsoon winds
The success and timing of trade, through the Indian Ocean basin, largely depended on
the rise of guilds, which essentially served as jati
One of the biggest transformation of the caste system during this period was
Hinayana Buddhism
Theravada Buddhism is also known as
the common practice of child marriage
One of the most pronounced examples of patriarchal dominance in ancient India was
White Huns
The eventual collapse of the Gupta states was partially caused by an invasion by the
debase the currency
One of the biggest financial problems of the later Mauryan period was the ruler's decision to
Kanishka
The Kushans in India reached their peak under
Ashoka
The high point of Mauryan success came during the reign of
Chandragupta Maurya
The first ruler to unify India was
a series of small kingdoms
During the time of the Aryans the Indian political landscape was characterized by
Megasthenes
Although only fragments remain, some of our best information about early Indian history comes from the book, Indika, written by
Buddhism
The boddhisatva is associated with what religion?
leading a balanced and moderate life
The Buddha believed that salvation came from
usually consisted of independent, autonomous city states
The political structure of the ancient Greeks
all Athenian citizens
Athenian democracy was open to
Sparta
In which polis did women have the most freedom?
Ptolemaic
The wealthiest of the Hellenistic empire was the _____________ empire
Plato
Later Christian scholastic philosophers referred to this man as "the master of those who know"
Epicureans
Which of the Hellenistic philosophers viewed pleasure as the greatest good?
philosopher kings
In "The Republic", Plato proposed that the true rulers of society should be
Sappho
the most influential female Greek poet
Seleucus
The largest part of Alexander's conquests, essentially the former Achaemenid empire, was taken over by
Salamis
The decisive naval battle of the Persian War was fought at
Thera
Of the natural disasters that plagued the Minoans, the most devastating was the volcanic eruption in 1628 BCE on the island of
Minoans
The Mycenaeans received early, indirect influence from the Egyptians and Phoenicians through their contact with the
tyrant
Which of the following words was used the by Greeks to refer to generals or politicians who, although often popular, gained power by irregular means
Dionysus
Women were the chief devotees of the Greek god of wine, who was named
honor
Which of the following did Socrates believe was more important than wealth or fame?
Punjab
The easternmost point of Alexander's conquests was
Philip II
By 338 BCE, the Greeks had fallen to
centralized imperial state
Which of the following did NOT come about because of Greek colonization?
All of the above
Which of the following events occurred during the time if Pericles?
the Seleucid empire
Of all the Hellenistic empires, Greek influence was greatest in
Lucius Cornelius Sulla
The leader, supported by the Roman aristocrats, who led a slaughter of more than ten thousand of his political enemies
as a Roman citizen Paul had the right to appeal his case in Rome, which he did
Paul's case was transferred to Rome because
Persians
The Roman policy of toleration and respect for conquered peoples was most similar to the
Stoicism
The most prominent school of moral philosophy in Rome was
Jews
From 66 to 70 AD the Romans fought a bloody battle with the
Twelve Tables
The Romans had a long tradition of written law stretching back to 450 BCE and the creation of the
the right of a patrician to transfer out of a plebeian court
All of the following were the foundations of Roman law with the exception of
Actium
Octavian was able to restore order to the Roman world with his victory in 31 BCE at
favored liberal policies and social reform
In regard to political philosophy, Julius Caesar
enormous plantations worked by slaves
Latifundia were
Sicily
During the Punic Wars, the Romans first fought the Carthaginians over the most important source of grain in the western Mediterranean. Where was is?
dictator
During times of crisis the Romans would appoint an official with absolute power known as a
Etruscans
During its early history, Rome was dominated by the
consuls
In the early stages of the Roman Republic, the patricians elected two
Cleopatra
The last of the Ptolemaic rulers was
stimulated the development of the local economies and states
The Roman conquest of Gaul, Germany, Britain, and Spain
the hearth
Vesta was the Roman goddess of
Mars
Zeus was to Jupiter as Ares was to
Islam
Which of the following religions was not popular during the Roman Empire?
a Jewish sect that looked for the appearance of a savior
The Essenes were
Scipio
Who was the Roman general during the Third Punic War?
Pyrinies and Alpas
What two mountain ranges did Hannibal cross on his way to invade Rome?
corvus
What naval invention helped the Romans take back their holdings in the Mediterranean in the First Punic War?
Numidia
What North African ally kingdom brought Rome into the Third Punic War?
eternal enemy of Rome
What did Hannibal promise to both Rome and Carthage as a young man?