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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
World Civ.: France
Terms in this set (50)
French Protestants, followers of Calvin
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
-Occurred at the wedding of Henry of Navarre, which was supposed to unite the Huguenots and Catholic
Edict of Nantes
1598 proclamation that recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France but also gave the Huguenots the right to worship and to enjoy all political privileges
(1585-1642), ruled as regent in place of Louis XIII, set in place the cornerstone of French absolutism, reshuffled royal council to curb the power of the nobility, established intendant system—intendants appointed directly by the monarch, solely responsible to him, enforced royal orders and weakened the power of the nobility, established French Academy to standardize language
"the Sun King;" considered to be the model of absolute monarchs; he controlled all aspects of government, and demonstrated his power and wealth with his palace at Versailles; engaged in efforts to increase his power by taking attacking Huguenots and engaging in wars to acquire more territory and power
A French rebellion that was caused by Mazarin's attempt to increase royal revenue and expand state bureaucracy; caused Louis XIV to distrust the state and turn to absolutism
a finance minister under Louis XIV that applied mercantilism to France to help increase revenue
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.
War of Spanish Succession
1701 - 1713 Caused when Charles II of Spain leaves Spanish empire/crown to Philip of Anjou (Louis XIV of France's grandson)
Peace of Utrecht
(1713) - The pact concluding the War of the Spanish Succession, forbidding the union of France with Spain, and conferring control of Gibraltar on England.
A ruler who puts the success of his state above everything else (Henry IV of France, Elizabeth I of England).
(1589-1610) - Formerly Henry of Navarre; ascended the French throne as a convert to Catholicism. Surrived St. Bartholomew Day, signed Edict of Nantes, quoted as saying "Paris is worth a mass."
(1515-1547) King of France who was regarded as Renaissance monarch; a patron of arts who imposed new controls on Catholic church; ally of Ottoman sultan against Holy Roman emperor. He also devised the sale of public offices in France to raise money to pay for the economically disastrous Hapsburg-Valois wars.
catholics wanted to subdue Huguenots
(1564-1642) An Italian who provided more evidence for heliocentrism and questioned if the heavens really were perfect. He invented a new telescope, studied the sky, and published what he discovered. Because his work provided evidence that the Bible was wrong he was arrested and ended up on house arrest for the rest of his life.
(1473-1543) A Polish clergyman who began the revolution in astronomy by publishing his treatise on The Revolution of the Celestial Spheres. He claimed the Earth and the planets revolved around the sun which had a simpler mathematical explanation.
(1712-1786) King of Prussia, aggressive in foreign affairs. Attacked neighbors. Used military to increase power. Encouraged religious tolerance and legal reform.
Prussian rulers and Hapsburg rivals
First came to the throne in Russia in 1613 with Michael Romanov, and the dynasty ruled Russia until 1917.
Peter the Great
Became the ruler of Russia and known for westernzing the country in order to be successful. He made Russia come out of their isolation and created the first navy. He soon moved his capital to St. Petersburg, where he expanded the size of Russia.
(r. 1740-1780) Empress of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
Austrian emperor hammered out this agreement in which the European powers agreed to recognize his daughter Maria Theresa as his legal heir; Frederick the Great of Prussia ignored it and seized Silesia, sparking the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748)...Prussia held onto Silesia at war's end
War of Austrian Succession
(1740-1748); Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI died without heir; most rulers recognized his daughter Maria Theresa because of Charles's Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 had given a woman the right to inherit the Habsburg crown lands; Frederick II of Prussia invaded the Austrian province of Silesia and France joined Prussia; great Britain allied with Austria to prevent France from taking the Austrian Netherlands; French and British colonies fought overseas in North American; Maria Theresa conceded Silesia to Prussia to split the Prussians off from France; Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748 recognized Maria Theresa as the heiress to Austrian lands and her husband Francis I became the Holy Roman Emperor; the peace failed to resolve colonial conflicts between Britain and France.
Austrian province in eastern Germany that is later seized by Frederick II of Prussia in December of 1740, provoking the War of the Austrian Succession.
Catherine the Great
An enlightened despot who ruled over Russia. She is responsible for many positive changes in Russia, as well as securing the country a warm water port.
Seven Years War
(1756-1763 CE) Known also as the French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended 7 years war; Silesia went to Prussia; Austria-Hungary became a multi-national state; reformed Hapsburg monarchy; ended serfdom in Austria; ended death penalty
family which controlled the Holy Roman Empire for a long time, and then which became the leading power in the Austrian Empire
(1789-1799) A period of radical social and political upheaval in French and European history. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years. Old ideas about hierarchy and tradition succumbed to new Enlightenment principles of citizenship and inalienable rights.
King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
causes of the French Revolution
1) The economic and financial crisis that led to the calling of the Estates General. 2) The political incompetence of Louis XV and XVI. 3) The unfair taxation between the three estates
Wrote an essay called "What is the 3rd estate" Argued that lower classes were more important than the nobles and the government should be responsible to the people. "Common Sense" of France.
Preceding events led to mass hysteria in Paris. Paris mobs and military volunteers responding to panic of foreign invasion roamed streets of Paris persecuting anyone suspected of counterrevolutionary sympathies. Massacred some 1,100 people including nonjuring priests and anyone who appeared to have upper class connections.
Tennis Court Oath
A pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Partisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles
A wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789
Declaration of the Right of Man
A document drafted by the National Assembly promising all men their natural rights and the freedom of expression. No mechanism to enforce these rights. Not a law, an ideal.
Committee of Public Safety
Established and led by Robespierre, fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses. Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.
Reign of Terror
Terrorized people into submission (Robespierre)
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
1785-1799. Five man group. Passed a new constitution in 1795 that was much more conservative. Corrupt and did not help the poor, but remained in power because of military strength. By 1797 it was a dictatorship.
Collection of laws that standardized French law under the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte
the most radical, distinct political group who was against kings/monarchies and their supporters
Confederation of the Rhine
A federation of German states organized under Napoleon I in July 1806. Formerly under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire, which was dissolved the same year, the new federation placed itself under the "protection" of Napoleon and was governed by one of his close allies. It quickly fell apart after Napoleon's defeat outside Leipzig in 1813 as member states abandonded the French and joined the German natinalist "war of liberation."
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
..., The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France
Treaty of Tilsit
(1807) Agreement between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I in which Russia became an ally of France and Napoleon took over the lands of Prussia west of the Elbe as well as the Polish provinces.. Russia joins Continental System.
Declaration of Pillnitz
A statement agreed upon by Leopold II and Fredrick William II to intervene if Louis XVI was threatened by revolution. "Treat the King and Queen nicely."
A group of moderates that felt that the revolution had gone far enough and wanted to protect the wealthy middle class from radical attacks. Organized support to resist strength against the mountain
The Mountain was a political group whose members called Montagards sat on the highest benches at the Assembly. They were successively with a group of men called Marat, Daton, and Robespierre. The term was used for the Legislative Assembly until 1793.
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