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NERVOUS SYSTEM VOCABULARY
Terms in this set (38)
A subatomin particle having no electrical charge (electrically neutral), with a mass of about 1.7 X 10^-24 g found in the nucleus of an atom.
Organ of the central nervous systen where informatin is processed and integrated.
A cluster (functional group) of nerve cell bodies in a centralized nervous system.
The part of a neuron that houses the nucleus and most other organelles.
One of usually numerous, short, highly branched extensions of a neuron that receive signals from other neurons.
A typically long extension, or process, of a neuron that carried nerve impulses away from the cell body towards targent cells.
The junction where a neuron communicates with another cell across a narrow gap via a neurotransmitter or an eletrical coupling
A molecule that is released from the synaptic termainal of a neuron at a chemical synapse, diffuses across the synaptic cleft, and binds to the postsynaptic cell, triggering a responce.
A nerve cell that receives information from the internal or external environment and transmits signals to the central nervous system.
An association neuron; a nerve cell within the central nervous system that forms synapses with sensory and or motor neurons and integrates sensory input and motor output.
A nerve cell that transmits signals from the brain or spinal cord to muscles or glands.
Central Nervous System; The portion of the nervous system where signal integration occurs; in vertebrate animals; the brain and spinal cord.
The ensory and motor neurons that connect to the central nervous system.
The difference in electrical charge across a cell's plasma membrane due to the differential distribution of ions. Membrane potential affects the activity of excitable cells and the transmembrane movement of all charged substances.
The membrane potential characteristic of a nonconducting excitable cell, with the inside of the cell more negative than the outside.
A change in a cell's membrane potential such that the inside of the membrane becomes more negative relative to the outside.
________ reduces the chance that neurons will transmit a nerve pulse.
A change in a cell's membrane potential such that the inside of the membrane is made less negative relative to the outside.
An electrical signal that propagates (travels) along the membrane of a neuron or other excitable cell as a nongraded (all-or-none) depolarization.
The potential that an excitable cell membrane must reach for an action potential to be initiated.
NODES OF RANVIER
Wrapped around the axon of a neuron, an insulating coat of cell membranes from Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes. It is interrupted by nodes of Ranvier, where action potentials are generated.
One of the most common neurotransmitters; functions by binding to receptors and altering the permeability of the postsynaptic membrane to specific ions, either depolarizing or hyperpolarizing the membrane.
An amino acid that functions as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates.
A neurotransmitter that is catecholamine, like epinephrine and norepinephrine.
A neurotransmitter, synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan, that functions in the central nervous system.
Any of several hormones produced in the brain and anterior pituitary that inhibit pain perception.
An automatic reaction to a stimulus, mediated by the spinal cord or lower brain.
Regions of dendrites and clustered neuron cell bodies within the CNS
Tracts of axons with the CNS
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
An efferent branch of the vertebrate peripheral nervous system that regulates the internal environment; consists of the sympathetic, parasympat
One of three divisions of the autonomic nervous system; generally enhances body activities that gain and conserve energy, such as digestion and reduced heart rate.
An integrating center of the vertebrate forebrain. Neurons with cell bodies in the thalamus relay neutral input to specific areas in the cerebral cortex and regulate what information goes to the cerebral cortex.
The ventral part of the vertebrate forebrain; functions in maintaining homeostasis, especially in coordinating the endocrine and nervous systems; secretes hormones of the posterior pituitary and releasing factors that regulate the anterior pituitary.
A sensory receptor that detects physical deformation in the body's environment associated with pressure, touch, stretch, motion, or sound.
A receptor of electromagnetic energy, such as visible light, electricity, or magnetism.
A receptor stimulated by either heat or cold.
A sensory receptor that responds to noxious or painful stimulus; also called a nociceptor.
A sensory receptor that responds to a chemical stimulus, such as a solute or a odorant.
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