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Modern and Contemporary History Final
Terms in this set (136)
During the 1920s,
China returned to the values of Confucius.
acting on Comintern advice, the CCP allied itself with the Nationalists in 1923.
Sun Yat-sen brought his party back to prominence on the mainland by allying with the shogun of the southern province of Guangdong.
the Nanjing Republic was established by Mao Zedong.
Mao Zedong, a steel worker, became the military leader of the KMT-CCP alliance.
During the Great Depression,
Latin American economies boomed, in contrast to those of the United States and Europe.
exports from Latin America dropped to about half those of the late 1920s.
the pineapple industry finally became highly profitable as world demand for fruits rose.
Latin America developed a mature regional economy, which exported large quantities of manufactured goods and imported most of its foodstuffs and raw materials.
revolutions occurred all over Latin America.
All of the following are correct about Iraq except
a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad became king in 1921.
oil was discovered near Kirkuk in 1927.
after World War I, the British governed Iraq under a League of Nations "mandate."
the British ruled through the minority urban Shi-ite population.
the region had been under Ottoman rule since the seventeenth century.
How did the Bolshevik victory in Russia alter Asian ideas about Marxism?
Nationalist leaders became receptive because they saw their "pre-modern" societies as like that of "backward Russia," thus making Russian developments relevant.
China adopted a Marxist constitution.
Nationalists from Asia rejected it because of Russia's imperialistic past.
It had no impact in China during the 1920s and 1930s.
Arab nationalists were much more receptive as "Islamic Marxism" became known.
The Japanese term for the industrial and financial conglomerates that controlled much of the nation's industry was
In the Middle East during the interwar period,
Lawrence of Arabia was made the first king of Saudi Arabia.
the award of a mandate to the World Zionist Congress by the League of Nations constituted the first step in creating a Jewish state in the eastern Mediterranean.
the Balfour Declaration was made null and void.
the achievement of the "Nile breakthrough" in electricity generation opened the possibility of almost cost-free electric power to much of the entire Middle East.
a massive oil discovery at Dhahran in 1938 moved Saudi Arabia from being an area of chronic poverty to one of unexpected national affluence.
The term Mahatma means
Highly Intelligent One
Gandhi used the spinning wheel as a symbol of his protest against
import duties against wheels of all types.
British religious policies.
discrimination against Indian women.
textile imports from Britain.
The Indian National Congress
had leaders who represented both the secular, educated elite, such as Nehru, and those who rejected many Western traditions, such as Gandhi.
advocated the creation of a separate Muslim state in southern India in 1933 in order to avoid a major split in nationalist ranks.
did not have any of its leaders imprisoned, due to satyagraha, or non-violent resistance.
began as an armed, anti-British guerrilla movement in South India.
had became hopelessly divided between Nehru's traditionalists and Gandhian modernists by 1936.
In appraising the work of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, one can say that
no real change from the traditional Ottoman ways ever occurred under his rule.
he finally succeeded in unifying Persian society.
he retained the Islamic practices that his Ottoman predecessors had adhered to for centuries.
he created a secular Turkish state that embraced many aspects of a modern Western nation.
he maintained a strict Islamic consistency in all aspects of Turkish life.
By the 1920s, the United States
was the major source of outside investment capital for Latin America since the 1820s.
was seen as an imperialist power by many Latin Americans, particularly because of the activities of the United Fruit Company in Central America.
had begun the "Good Neighbor" policy during World War I to reinforce its policy of "leading" Latin Americans toward "good business" and "good government."
turned its back entirely on Latin America, pursuing an Asian-directed policy instead.
had conducted no acts of military intervention in Latin America until after World War I.
According to the Balfour Declaration
Palestine would be divided equally between Muslims and Jews.
Britain would recognize the independence of all Arab states.
all Muslims were to leave Palestine.
all Jews were prohibited from entering Palestine
a Jewish homeland was to be founded in Palestine.
To avoid eradication by Chiang's army, Mao led his PLA from South China to the North China town of Yan'an. This journey has come to be called the
Great Leap Forward.
Many nationalists in European colonies found themselves engulfed in personal turmoil because they
totally rejected any efforts at modernization.
had no knowledge of the local traditions.
were completed undecided about which path to pursue.
wanted to accept all Western culture.
were often more Westernized than the countrymen whom they wanted to liberate.
Major political changes in Japan in the early twentieth century included the
growth of labor unions on the political right and ultranationalist groups on the left.
extension of voting rights to all women in 1926.
extension of voting rights to all men in 1925.
the emergence of a single political party semi-dictatorship.
the emperor's abdication, where it was discovered he was not truly divine.
was never imprisoned, in spite of his ongoing political activity.
ultimately abandoned his non-violence tactics.
wanted to convince the Pakistanis to leave and, at the same time, to enhance Indian unity.
used his march to the sea to try to convince Indians to ignore the increased British salt tax.
supported the British in World War II.
Most of the early Iranian oil profits went into the hands of
the Russian government
The Standard Oil Company
were called "tongs" in China.
usually started among elite foreign students on European holiday.
all began as traditionalist, religiously based movements.
did not begin in Southeast Asia until the 1930s.
were usually led by people with extensive knowledge of Western ideas and values
The two goals that anti-imperialist nationalists were forced to choose between were
modernization or independence.
gender or political equality.
urban or rural lifestyles.
ethnic purity or assimilation.
religion or philosophy.
By the end of the 1920s, the Comintern
had achieved its greatest, if limited, success in Asia.
had been disbanded, after Wahhabi leaders had complained about its intrusion in Turkish domestic politics.
attempted to blend Marxism, Lenin's concept of the five revolutionary stages and the writing of Mao Zedong into its "Basic Revolution Precepts Catalog."
had been most successful in Islamic-Marxist areas.
was absorbed into Aramco in 1933.
Governments in Latin America after 1920
were, although republican in structure, usually royalist in fact, and socialist in economic policies.
differed widely in policies, as Argentina's move toward middle-class representation faded with the accession of Juan Perón, while Mexican peasants gained from land reform under Cárdenas.
were all authoritarian dictatorships
were peasant-controlled in Mexico and Brazil and dominated by socialists in Chile and Argentina.
became, as a whole, more openly democratic.
By the 1920s and 1930s, Japan
was increasingly influenced by Marxists on the left and radical nationalism on the right.
experienced a sharp economic decline between 1903 and 1930
joined the United Nations as a result of the leadership of foreign minister Shidehara.
became less industrialized and steadily more conservative.
did not experience growing Marxist influence on organized labor.
Which of the following is not correct regarding Chiang's programs in China?
The pressures of the Japanese presence in northern China, and the effects of the Great Depression, undermined his efforts.
His repressive policies alienated many intellectuals and political moderates.
His dependence on gentry support neutralized his ability to achieve major land reform.
He was able to solve China's economic and social problems.
Confucianism was no longer generally accepted in the country.
was sharply divided, Muslim against Buddhist, from the beginning.
had an articulate peasant, Sutan Sjahrir, as its first prominent leader
was initially founded by people who were educated, socially elite urbanites.
was fomented by dissatisfied peasants in the Punjab.
had no organization until the arrival of Gandhi in 1931.
The Turkish Republic changed its society by all of the following except
banning the wearing of the fez by men or the traditional Muslim veil by women.
replacing the Shari'ya with a secular civil code.
giving women the right to vote in 1934.
making Islam the sole religion of the state.
introducing five-year plans to enhance state direction of the economy.
At the Munich Conference of 1938,
eventual Nazi control of all of Czechoslovakia was avoided.
the British and the French representatives allowed Hitler to take over the Sudetenland.
the British prime minister refused to agree to the demands of Adolf Hitler.
Winston Churchill gave his support to the policy of appeasement.
the policy of appeasement successfully put a stop to German expansion in Europe.
The naval battle that established United States naval superiority in the Pacific was the Battle of
the Coral Sea.
The events that allowed Hitler to gain dictatorial powers by "legal" means were
the death of President Hindenburg and Hitler's speech at Hindenburg's funeral.
the crushing of the Kiel Mutiny by the SS.
the Reichstag fire, Mussolini's "Caesar" speech, and Rommel's endorsement.
his Dachau speech and the two subsequent assassination attempts by the SPD in 1932.
the passage of the Enabling Act by the Reichstag.
After Hitler occupied most of France, the remainder of the country became
Vichy France under Marshal Henri Petain.
Free France under Charles de Gaulle.
Communist France under Pierre Mendez-France.
Republican France under Georges Clemenceau.
The Holocaust included all of the following except
an attempt to increase the efficiency of the Einsatzgruppen units by moving mass murder activities to fixed, "death camp" locations.
the elimination of Gypsies and many others from groups deemed undesirable by the Nazis.
the murder of millions of forced laborers who died of starvation, overwork, or shooting.
the establishment of execution camps in France.
consuming approximately 90 percent of central and eastern Europe's Jewish population.
Which of the following statements best characterizes the totalitarian state in the 1930s?
t was an all-compassing, authoritarian dictatorship that subordinated individual needs, and employed police power and mass propaganda to achieve total control.
It depended upon the appeasement policies of the Eastern democracies.
It wanted the masses to keep quiet and not obstruct state policy.
It limited its authoritarian dictates to the political and economic aspects of the state's affairs, in an effort to have freer social and cultural choices serve as means of placating the masses.
It was democratic and championed individualism and democratic freedoms.
World War II in the Far East ended with
the island-hopping strategy taking Hokaiddo
D-Day on June 6, 1944.
the capture of Singapore by the British navy.
the dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima.
The Beer Hall Putsch of 1923
led to the German government exiling Hitler back to his native Austria.
was an attempt to seize power in the independent nation of Southern Bavaria.
brought Hitler to power in Germany
brought Mussolini to power.
was quickly crushed
Mussolini became prime minister of Italy
when he made an alliance with the pope and the Bolshevik government of Russia.
when King Victor Emmanuel, reacting to Fascist intimidation, appointed him.
when he mounted a violent coup d'etat and seized control of the government.
after groups of squadristi destroyed the socialist opposition to Fascist rule.
because the Fascio di Combattimento won a majority of seats in the parliamentary election.
Which of the following acts by Hitler did not constitute a violation of the Versailles Treaty?
the introduction of a military draft that would expand Germany's army to 550,000 troops
the creation of a new German air force
the abolition of political parties
the German remilitarization of the Rhineland
On the Eastern Front,
in Siberia, Japanese troops never penetrated more than 500 miles inland from their base in the Pacific port of Vladivostok.
German troops continued to push east of the Ural Mountains in early 1944.
over ninety percent of Moscow was flattened during the German bombing raids of late 1944.
Indian Gurkha troops played a major role in the battles of Moscow and Stalingrad.
at Stalingrad, Germany lost an army of 300,000
Stalin's first two five-year plans
reduced the number of industrial cities in the Urals and Siberia.
moved sixty million people from European to Asian Russia.
transformed Russia into an agricultural country.
emphasized the production of consumer goods.
resulted in large increases in the nation's heavy industry and oil production.
The Nazi Party
made class-based appeals in elections
gave qualified support to communism until 1935.
had 800,000 members by 1932.
had originally been called the Labor Party.
favored collectivization until 1934
Japan's decision to seize much of Southeast Asia was based primarily on
the need to secure vital natural resources.
its contempt for China
a need to satisfy rampant nationalism
providing bases for Pacific dominance.
In Japan, after 1929,
a formal treaty of non-aggression was made with the United States.
the Great Depression increased both exports and wages
right-wing extremists began to terrorize and at times murder opponents
a policy of political and diplomatic conciliation with China was followed.
Prime Minister Tojo forced the emperor to declare war on Germany.
To whip up popular support for his totalitarian regime, Hitler organized gigantic mass rallies in the 1930's in the city of
Which political leader told military leaders in 1933 that he wanted to remove the "cancer of democracy" from their society?
Which of the following was not part of Japanese expectations and war strategy?
American acquiescence to Japanese Pacific hegemony
total destruction of the United States Pacific Fleet
formal alliance with Germany
the self-indulgent American propensity to avoid going to war
the American public's support for Franklin Roosevelt's policy of war on Japan
The Blitzkrieg was
a steady, methodical armed attack that was aimed at achieving an eventual weakening of an enemy and, finally, surrender.
the use of massed artillery fire and poison gas against enemy fortifications.
a coordinated sudden attack by land and air forces.
never able to achieve its specific military objectives.
a series of naval attacks that were aimed at blockading enemy ports.
The concept of a new "Monroe Doctrine for Asia" meant that
the British navy would protect East Asian waters.
Japan would play the role of guiding Asia to prosperity and development.
the United States would protect Asia from European exploitation.
the Soviet Union would become the Chinese protector against Japanese aggression.
Japanese diplomatic and military relationships with the other nations of Asia would be reduced.
Hitler wrote Mein Kampf
after becoming Chancellor in 1933.
while in jail after the failed Beer Hall Putsch.
before the Beer Hall Putsch of 1923.
during World War I.
during the early years of the Great Depression.
The Nuremberg Laws established the
the legal isolation of German Jews from citizenship and legal rights.
process of collectivization
institutionalization of an annual kristallnacht celebration at the end of June.
Nazi renunciation of all anti-Semitic policies in Germany.
ethnic racial homogeneity of Nazi Germany by expelling all Asians.
The SA, or Storm Troops, were
the first type of Kolkhoz
led by Hermann Goering.
the Nazi party militia.
Mussolini's Black Shirts
the major threat to the security of the Nazi Party before 1923.
The Aryan racial state
was destined, in Nazi plans, to control Western Europe and Africa.
needed only the passive tolerance of the German population in order to be established.
would make all women warrior-soldiers, thus doubling Aryan military strength.
required the active involvement of the entire German population to achieve its destiny.
disliked mass demonstration unless the emotionalism was minimized.
The purpose of the SS was to
augment the duties of the SA.
motivate industrial workers to become more productive.
harass the French border guards in the Rhineland.
use terror to enforce the policies of the Nazi party.
debilitate the development of Aryan supremacy.
All of the following brought Hitler support in Germany except
the economic problems created by the Great Depression.
his threat to tear up the Versailles Treaty.
his promise to uphold the Versailles Treaty in spite of its unpopularity.
his aim to restore Germany's power among the nations of Europe.
support of the conservative economic elite which saw him as a bulwark against communism.
Which of the following was not true about Mussolini's Fascist rule in Italy?
It gave him total control over all aspects of Italian life.
It never achieved the totality of power, in repression and media control that the dictatorships in Germany and the Soviet Union did.
It tried to involve all Italian youth in a program of indoctrination, but achieved only limited success in that area.
It maintained a program of traditional values in regard to women, and mutual acceptance and coexistence with the Catholic Church
It was strongly supported by business and large landlord groups.
Major German initiatives in moving toward control of Europe before 1939 included all of the following except the
German seizure of Libya in 1935.
union with Austria.
two-stage takeover of Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939.
formation of the Rome-Berlin Axis and the Anti-Comintern Pact.
occupation of the Rhineland in 1935.
Hitler intended to gain more land for Germany in
the British Enpire
The earliest originator of the concept and practice of fascism was
Otto Von Bismarck
General Francisco Franco
Which island was increasingly seen by United States as a crucial element in American defense strategy in the Pacific during the winter of 1949-1950?
The Brezhnev Doctrine
threatened the People's Republic of China with nuclear war.
promised to respect human rights in exchange for the recognition of the Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe.
demanded that the Berlin Wall be dismantled.
promised Soviet support for the "Prague Spring" reformers.
was a warning to other Communist states to follow the path of Marxist-Leninist orthodoxy.
All of the following are true about the Berlin Airlift except
it did not block the separation of Germany into two states in 1949.
it was accompanied by a publicly stated American threat to use atomic weapons on Moscow if Soviet planes attacked allied aircraft.
it resulted in an increase of tension between the superpowers.
it was a result of Stalin's effort to prevent the creation of a separate West German state.
it provided Berlin with daily supplies.
The Korean War
was caused by domestic disagreements between Korean factions in the south.
was fought by a United Nations force composed mainly of South Korean and United States troops against North Korean forces and, after late 1950, Chinese "volunteers."
began only five months after the Soviet and American governments had established a new, unified government there and withdrawn their armies of occupation.
was finally won when 250,000 American troops captured the North Korean capital after a four-month siege.
involved large numbers of Chinese troops after United Nations air forces bombed Manchuria.
The Truman Doctrine
involved direct Soviet economic aid to Greece and Turkey.
was the basis for substantial United States aid to India and Iran.
was to be a non-political attempt to advance free governments in North Africa.
stated that the United States would provide aid for any nation that was being threatened by Communist subversion.
tolerated a limited expansion of Communist control over areas of the Middle East.
n reviewing the origins of the Cold War, the text
blames the British Labour government for manipulating America into an anti-Soviet policy.
remarked on the unusual nature of intense competition between two societies so heavily influenced by Western civilization.
supports the view of many revisionist historians that United States policies drove Stalin to adopt a hostile view of the West.
states that both nations were working within a framework conditioned by the past, from their different historical perspectives and their irreconcilable political ambitions.
proposes the Cold War actually originated in East Asia
Lyndon Johnson sent more American troops to South Vietnam because
he wanted to conquer all of Vietnam
he planned to establish Vietnam as a staging point for an American military onslaught into China.
he viewed all of Vietnam as the perfect target for a final Cold War nuclear confrontation.
he wanted to stop the South Vietnamese policy of giving free land to the peasants.
he believed that the combined forces of the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese army would have taken over all of Vietnam if he hadn't.
All except which of the following developments occurred at the Yalta Conference held in 1945?
The leaders of the three Allied nations were deeply divided over the future of Japan.
Roosevelt reassured Stalin that the Soviet Union's legitimate territorial and security concerns would be met.
The three Allied leaders were seemingly in broad agreement about the immediate future.
The Allies agreed to a process of free elections in the liberated nations of Europe.
The establishment of the United Nations was agreed to by the Allies.
Under Ronald Reagan, the United States was able to help sustain a Vietnam-like war that long embroiled Soviet forces in
The fighting in Indochina between 1946 and 1953
was ended with the use of atomic weapons by the French.
saw France agree to a negotiated peace after French public opinion tired of the "dirty war."
was between French troops and an alliance of Vietminh Front, Japanese, and Korean forces.
was conducted as an anti-imperialist war by an alliance of nationalist groups led by Deng Xiaoping, leader of the Indochinese Liberation Party.
led to the permanent defeat of the Communist military forces.
Which events made Stalin uneasy about the United States' intentions between 1945 and 1950?
The American threat to use atomic weapons the Middle East.
The provision of American economic and military aid to the Ukraine.
The stationing of United States ground forces in Finland and Iraq.
Plans to merge the American, British and French occupation zones in Germany into a West German republic.
The ban on Soviet participation in the European Recovery Program.
As a result of the American opening to China,
the two sides agreed to set aside their differences over Taiwan.
joint pressure was applied to ease Indian troops out of Sri Lanka.
the Chinese and Americans officially broke relations with the Soviet Union.
cooperation between America and China, for the purpose of curtailing Soviet Asian encroachment, disappeared.
the United States rejected the concept of the reunification of Taiwan with the mainland.
Churchill's March 1946 speech stated that
Mao Zedong could not be trusted to keep the peace.
war with the Soviet Union would take place shortly.
an "iron curtain" had "descended across the Continent."
British troops had preemptively seized the Iranian oil fields.
Britain was on the verge of financial collapse.
was eagerly embraced by President Truman as an alternative to nuclear war.
was treated with suspicion by United States leaders, especially after the Soviet crushing of the unrest in Hungary in 1956.
was a term first coined by Joseph Stalin in the 1940s.
was first used by Sun Yat-sen in 1921.
delayed the development of cultural exchanges of theatrical and other groups.
The eastern European nation that defied Stalin's attempt to occupy it after the war was
Germany under Petain.
Vichy under Petain.
Poland under Yaruzelski.
Finland under Ulbricht.
Yugoslavia under Tito.
Factors weakening Chiang Kai-shek during the Civil War included
the fact that 85,000 former Japanese occupation troops were fighting in his army and elite Japanese units formed his bodyguard.
the refusal of the United States to give even limited military support to the Nationalist armies.
Chiang's alliance with Japan during World War II.
peasant enthusiasm to Mao's promises to give land to the peasants.
middle class indifference toward his regime because of its refusal to provide them with lucrative government jobs
The treaty of 1949 between the United States, Canada, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Britain, the Netherlands, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, and Iceland created the military alliance known as
The 1975 accord that recognized all central and eastern European borders that had been established since the end of World War II, and committed the signers to the human rights of its citizens, was the
The European Recovery Program was better known as the
Five Point Program.
The Cuban Missile Crisis
was the first major Mexican-Cuban crisis.
was a direct attempt by the United States to remove Fidel Castro from power.
was a direct attempt by the Soviet Union to launch a nuclear attack on America.
brought the world to the brink of nuclear war, but eventually produced a lessening of Cold War tension between the superpowers
caused several military confrontations between the superpowers in world "hot zones."
In 2010, more of these were sold in China than in the United States.
In East Germany,
huge influxes of people from the West occurred in the 1980s.
the fall of communism resulted in political reunification with West Germany in 1990.
there was great fear and loathing in Germany at the prospect of German unification.
the Christian Democrats achieved little electoral success in 1990.
Communist repression was nonexistent.
At the close of World War II, the Soviet Union
moved toward greater liberalization.
had citizens who worked longer hours than before the war, ate less, and were ill-housed and poorly clothed.
had increased food production by tapping new, rich lands in Siberia and Turkmenistan.
under Stalin decided to provide a "socialist bonus" of more consumer goods for the masses by slowing the expansion of heavy industry.
sharply reduced military spending, but only after the surrender of Japan.
Characteristic of Stalin's domestic policies after World War II was
an emphasis on consumer goods
an emphasis on the growth of heavy industry.
the end of collectivization.
exiling hundreds of thousands of former czarist officials.
the imprisonment of two million returning soldiers, accused of "capitalist subversion."
Mao's Little Red Book
was banned during the Cultural Revolution.
became available only after Deng Xiaoping assumed power.
was a secret document which would lead to capitalism in China.
codified specific scientific theorems and postulates.
superseded all other learning sources during the Cultural Revolution.
As an instrument of perestroika, glasnost allowed
criticism of the government and Soviet society generally.
the development of new airports in Siberia.
the abandonment of political reforms.
the exclusion of Western culture from the Soviet Union.
the banning of many books.
greatly increased the funding for new agricultural areas in Kazakhstan and Mongolia.
valued stability above all, blocking significant attempts to deal with economic/social problems.
sharply reduced the powers of the KGB and Interior Ministry.
was a sincere admirer of the policies of Nikita Khrushchev.
was the first to finally break with Stalinism and to conciliate the Czech regime
During the late 1960s and the 1970s,
even Soviet airplane crashes and governmental scandals received tasteless and extensive press coverage under Brezhnev's "open society" policies.
the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution improved education and economic growth in China.
the problems of economic stagnation and political and administrative gerontocracy were effectively ignored under Brezhnev.
annual economic growth in the Soviet Union was between eight and eleven percent.
freedom of statement became much more common in the Soviet Union, shown by the awarding of literary prizes and pensions to Andrei Sakharov and Alexander Solzhenitsyn.
Which of the following was not characteristic of Soviet society during the Brezhnev years?
A more restrictive attitude toward dissidents.
A disregard for law and order.
A restriction of free expression.
An educational system focusing on rote memorization and political indoctrination.
Preventing the Soviet people from exposure to harmful foreign ideas, including rock music.
was picked for political leadership because of his record as a KGB data interpreter.
had supported Mao Zedong against Nikita Khrushchev.
was the well-placed son of the head of the state oil-refining corporation.
had spent many years in the gulag
had moved up rapidly since his appointment to the Party Central Committee in 1978.
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
fostered literacy in rural China.
created an academically more demanding curriculum in schools which stressed cogent thought and scientific training.
attempted to use conservative party members to "cleanse" China of "impure socialist elements."
enabled Mao to regain control of the party after the disastrous Great Leap Forward.
was directed mainly against middle-class Soviet technicians working in China.
Mao Zedong's New Democracy
moved slowly at first, in order not to alienate the peasants.
was modeled upon that found in France during the "Terror."
gave private land to five percent of peasant families, to increase collectivization.
was designed to expel the Turkic population from western China.
was patterned on Stalin's "Open Society" plan.
In May, 1989, the Chinese Communist rulers suppressed the "fifth modernization" by their action at
the Forbidden City
In its struggle to free itself from Communist rule and reestablish an independent political structure, Czechoslovakia experienced
a high level of tolerance for dissident protest in the 1970s.
a political and economic union with Hungary.
massive political and economic reforms after 1968.
the return of the Sudetenland from East Germany.
the crushing of reform by Soviet troops in 1968.
The leader of Poland's Solidarity movement was
The Great Leap Forward
was an economic success, raising agricultural production fifteen percent in two years.
was a more conservative approach to land reform.
produced such success that Mao became deified in China.
created huge rural communes but failed economically.
was aimed at organizing urban Chinese life.
Early in 1990, Gorbachev struck out Article 6 of the Soviet constitution, thereby
organizing an armed coup d'etat against the Soviet parliament.
installing Boris Yeltsin as his vice president.
legalizing the formation of political parties other than just the Communist Party.
abolishing communism as an economic system.
allowing women to divorce their husbands.
Which of the following occurred when Nikita Khrushchev was in power?
the Afghanistan occupation
the enunciation of the Carter-Khrushchev Accord
(T)he Twentieth National Congress speech
the Berlin Airlift
the Korean War
After assuming control of the Soviet Union, Nikita Khrushchev's policies
increased Stalinist repression and freed all political prisoners.
placed less emphasis on the consumer aspects of the economy.
were characterized by a program of de-Stalinization and broader intellectual tolerance.
became much more belligerent than they had been before he replaced Malenkov.
diminished the spirit of rebellion in the Soviet satellites by promising them complete independence in 1973.
Which of the following has occurred in Chinese life since the Revolution?
Under Mao, the government made an effort to strengthen the role of the family.
In the post-Mao era, there has been an emphasis on idealistic utopianism.
Individual economic achievement was encouraged during the Cultural Revolution.
Female foot binding has regained popular support.
Today, many Chinese people, especially the young, are trying to Westernize their dress and appearance.
Terrorism is often motivated by all of the following except
a desire to invoke political, social, and religious pluralism.
the desire for revolutionary upheaval.
nationalistic desires aimed at creating new states.
desires for political retribution.
religious commitments and beliefs.
Terrorism is often motivated by all of the following except
a desire to invoke political, social, and religious pluralism.
the desire for revolutionary upheaval.
nationalistic desires aimed at creating new states.
desires for political retribution.
religious commitments and beliefs.
The founding of the European Economic Community (EEC)
was initially designed with the hope it would stabilize employment for the working classes, but this hope was soon shown to be impossible.
initially received strong encouragement from the Soviet Union, which played a leading role until the Cold War erupted.
was publicly opposed by the United States and the Soviet Union, both of whom threatened military action.
established a customs union for its six member states.
initially embraced the Benelux countries, along with Sweden and Czechoslovakia
In 1986, a nuclear disaster which occurred in this place served to enhance European awareness of environmental problems.
The Three Gorges.
The so-called "Americanization of the world" has resulted from all of the following influences except
the bleak world-view of absurdist drama and literature.
popular musical forms such as jazz and rock and roll.
Which statement about permissiveness in Western society is accurate?
Political consciousness and youth protest has shown no relationship to rising permissiveness.
Permissiveness dropped significantly after 1955.
No relationship can be discovered between pornography, prostitution, and modern attitudes of permissiveness.
Sexual habits have not been affected by the new attitudes.
Increased drug consumption became a part of modern permissiveness for many.
Which of the following was not a problem faced by the government of Helmut Kohl?
the armed hostility of France
runaway budget deficits
the collapsed East German economy
higher taxes and a disgruntled populace
high levels of unemployment and social discontent in the eastern part of Germany
Throughout Europe, during the decade between 1948 and 1957,
there was a return to the traditional occupation of farming.
prostitution became rampant.
enrollment in universities experienced a steady decline.
economic growth stagnated.
the number of cars tripled.
Which of the following statements accurately describes developments relating to Cuba in the late 1950s and early 1960s?
Fidel Castro was overthrown by Fulgencio Batista.
The Bay of Pigs disaster resulted in a Soviet decision to place Soviet missiles in Cuba.
Fidel Castro withdrew Cuba from the United Nations.
Ché Guevara successfully established a communist government in Bolivia.
President Johnson authorized the CIA to train Cuban exiles to invade the island.
The leader of the successful revolution in Cuba in December 1958 was
Ernesto Ché Guevara
The new prime minister of Great Britain immediately after World War II, Clement Atlee,
was a leftist revolutionary, whom the king removed two months after he took office.
included two Communist members in his cabinet.
established the welfare state in Britain.
blocked parliamentary consideration of a National Health Insurance Act.
favored abolition of all private banks in the country.
The term "ethnic cleansing" is associated with the tragedy which occurred in
Poland, with the overthrow of the Communist government by Solidarity.
East Germany, with the fall of the Berlin Wall.
the Ukraine, with the atomic explosion at Chernobyl.
Bosnia, during the breakup of Yugoslavia.
the Czech Republic, with the breakup of Czechoslovakia.
In 2010, the thirteen-year rule of Britain's Labour Party came to an end as which conservative became Prime Minister?
Major developments in Latin America since 1955 have included
large increases in the incomes of peasants and industrial workers.
the outbreak of serious interracial conflict, often sparking large urban riots and frightening outbreaks of savage "ethnic cleansing."
an increase in the number of democratic regimes in the 1980s and 1990s.
sharp reductions in foreign debt in the 1970s, as governments worked to reduce outsiders' control of their economies.
an end to the cultivation of coca and marijuana in the region by 1990.
The substitution of traditional imports by increasing domestic industrial production in Latin America began to fail in the 1960s because
they often lacked sufficient labor to allow them to compete with foreign manufacturers.
United States firms effectively stifled attempts to establish industry in Latin America.
Japan refused to buy any goods from countries using import-substitution.
foreign capital costs and a welter of other, highly technical problems fatally weakened attempts to expand Latin American industry.
domestic markets were too small and countries were unable to find enough foreign buyers.
The province which wanted to secede from Canada but was defeated in popular referendum in 1995 was
has three official languages: English, French, and Cree.
has only a poor working class with an average income considerably lower than that of blue-collar workers in Latin America.
like Latin America, has an economy based entirely on the export of raw materials.
had only a cautious, minimal subsidy program to private insurance companies to cover catastrophic health insurance for its citizens until 1999.
has many citizens who believe the United States has excessive influence in Canadian politics and over the Canadian economy.
Which of the following is NOT true of Vladimir Putin, President of Russia?
He centralized federal power in Moscow.
He is a former member of the KGB.
He initiated a program of economic reforms that yielded an economic boom and budget surplus.
He replaced Boris Yeltsin after Yeltsin suddenly resigned.
He negotiated peace with Chechnya,
The second Balkan war that started in 1989, and generated the bombing led by the United States and NATO was between
Serbia and Croatia
Bosnia and Serbia
Kosovo and Serbia
Kosovo and Montenegro
Albania and Herzegovina
The policy known as Ostpolitik
was designed by Charles De Gaulle.
increased cultural, personal, and economic relations between West and East Germany.
was designed by Conrad Adenauer.
was an attempt by East Germany to unite with West Germany.
almost led to East German absorption of West Germany.
Charles De Gaulle did not do which of the following things ?
endeavor to make France a major nuclear power
come to power because of the Algerian crisis
increase the power of the office of president
create the Fifth Republic
see France decrease its gross domestic product during his period of government
The first leaders of the People's Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea, respectively, were
Heidekei Tojo and Lee Kuan-yew.
Kim Il Sung and Syngman Rhee.
Kim Dae Jung and Arturo Shimonoseki.
Yayha Khan and Pu Yi.
Achmed Sokarno and Chou Liu.
All of the following were measures of Singapore's success as a "little tiger" EXCEPT
The apparent motivation for the assassination of Gandhi was that Gandhi
was against creating a strictly Hindu India
was discovered to be a secret Sikh.
favored Indian partition.
didn't want to see the Muslims get what they wanted.
was staunchly anti-Hindu.
Which Korean term is equivalent to the Japanese term zaibatsu?
Immediately after World War II, General MacArthur's responsibilities included the demilitarization of Japanese society and
the laying of the foundations of postwar Philippines society.
the elimination of the Japanese emperor.
trying Japanese for war crimes and laying the foundations of postwar Japanese society.
the rearmament of Japan but under American leadership.
the trial of American officials charged with war crimes.
One of the exceptions to peaceful European decolonization in Southeast Asia after World War II was in
President Sukarno of Indonesia
used economic aid from China and the Soviet Union to counter Western influence, and used domestic Indonesian Communists to counter domestic Muslim opponents.
was actually from Sri Lanka and arrived in the Dutch East Indies only in 1941.
was radically pro-Muslim.
was pro-Western in both his domestic and foreign policies.
was a boring speaker, but was supported because of fear of his konfrontasi gangs.
The major dichotomy in Southeast Asia is the contrast between
coastal and inland regions.
men and women.
Chinese and Burmese.
villages and cities.
mountains and lowlands.
Who was the first prime minister of India?
Muhammed Ali Jinnah
The customary "government party" in Japan between the 1950s and 1993 was
Social Democratic Party.
Liberal Democratic Party.
Party of the Republic.
People's Action Party.
Which of the following statements best characterizes the nature of India today?
India, unlike China, has rejected its cultural traditions and adopted those of the West.
India today is a nation of contrasts, with nearly one-third of its population living in poverty.
The majority of India's population is part of a large and growing middle class.
India's economy is a perfect model of the modern, successful socialist state.
Rural and urban poverty in India is rapidly becoming the norm for the first time in Indian history.
Since Chiang Kai-shek's death,
there are no diplomatic or economic relations between Taiwan and the United States.
the United States has "suggested" Taiwan consider uniting with the Philippine Islands.
the Republic of China began to move toward a more representative form of government.
Taiwan has adopted a socialist economy.
Taiwan has moved much closer to the mainland government.
In 1971, East Pakistan became the new independent nation of
All of the following are correct about Kashmir except
in 2003, the governments of India and Pakistan agreed to seek a peaceful solution to the Kashmir dispute.
most of the population is Muslim.
India controls most of Kashmir.
it has led to violence between India and Pakistan.
a majority of the population in Hindu.
The country that suffered a domestic holocaust at the hands of the Khmer Rouge is
Unlike the other economies of East Asia, Hong Kong's economic development has taken place in a system employing
direct state control of the economic sector.
a socialist economic philosophy.
massive British foreign aid programs.
Communist Chinese support.
unrestrained, free-market capitalism.
To combat fears of being dominated by a Chinese minority in the government in Malaya, the Federation
incorporated former British possessions in Borneo
fought pro-Communist factions at the Khitomer Accords.
joined the United Nations in recognizing the Republic of China in Taiwan.
mandated uniformity through Islam.
implemented a self-policing arbitration force called the El-Aurian.
In the 1950s, India
opposed United States "hegemonism" in the Philippines and Manchuria.
rejected the Marxist policies begun by Nehru.
took a neutral, third-world position in the Cold War.
took the side of the Soviet Union in the Cold War.
opposed Chinese independence.
All of the following are correct about Pakistan since September 11, 2001, except
President Musharaff gave support to the anti-terrorist campaign.
by 2008, many observers expressed concern that Pakistan might disintegrate as a country into squabbling ethnic blocs.
Benazir Bhutto was elected president in 2008.
much of the local population supported the Taliban, which had been driven from Afghanistan.
there were renewed tensions with India over Kashmir.
The "Japanese Miracle"
refers to the fact that Hokkaido was not damaged by atomic blasts.
began with the creation of the Tokyo Stock Exchange in 1948.
led to the establishment of a socialist economy.
had its roots in the initial policy decisions made during the Meiji reform period.
successfully abolished all social and gender discrimination.
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