Introduction to Musical Theatre FINAL

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

This was a pro-union musical that refused to be censored by the government. The show premiered in an alternative theatre where the cast participated from the audience.
The Cradle Will Rock
This songwriter influenced the attitude of the American populace regarding the war and raised millions of dollars for the WWI and WWII war effort with his creation of Yip Yip Yaphank and This is the Army
Irving Berlin
This composer/lyricist duo is known for their topsy-turvy plots, artfully making fun of "the system" (including under-qualified men in office), and patter songs. They eventually parted ways due to a dispute over carpet.
William Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan
The was the most popular genre of entertainment from the 1840s-90s and built its material off gross stereotypes of African American culture.
Minstrelsy (the minstrel show)
Jerome Kern, Guy Bolton, and PG Wodehouse collaborated on what series of musicals?
The Princess Series
What was the name of the first "talking movie" starring Al Jolson?
The Jazz Singer
This musical changed the course of Broadway and kicked off the Golden Age with its organic integration of song, dance, and dialogue. Before its premiere, composers, and lyricists were mere songwriters. Afterwards, they took on the role of dramatists. It also produced the first original cast recording.
Oklahoma!
This actress, originally a stenographer, helped change the expectations of a leading lady with her big personality and powerful, brassy voice.
Ethel Merman
This Gilbert and Sullivan operetta created an obsession in America that led to unauthorized productions and the famous line: "What never, well, hardly ever."
HMS (Her Majesty's Ship) Pinafore
This musical, involving two Americans and a magical Scottish Village, has strong idealist and isolationist undertones/
Brigadoon
This musical that dealt with physical abuse is considered the first musical tragedy.
Carousel
What is the name for the musicals that featured a working-class girl who obtains a man and elevated social status through marriage and/or good business sense (such as Sally, Mary, and Irene)
Cinderella Series
This eccentric figure created the series of lavish revues that displayed new inventions, political news, and beautiful chorus girls.
Florenz Ziegfeld
This patriotic vaudeville performer, writer, composer, producer, and director changed the definition of a leading man in musical theatre.
George M. Cohan
This term originally referred to a specific location of several music-publishing companies (with loud pianos) and now refers to the genre of popular music between 1890-1950.
Tin Pan Alley
This musical, written by the International Ladies Garment Workers Union, was the only amateur production to have success on Broadway running for two and a half years.
Pins and Needles
This was Broadway's smallest theatre with only 299 seats.
The Princess Theatre
Based on an "anti-love story", Pygmalion, this musical is considered by many to be "the perfect musical."
My Fair Lady
Which musical, based on an Edna Ferber novel and produced by Florenz Ziegfeld, was one of the first and only of its time to be considered "serious entertainment," featured a mixed cast, and addressed issues of bigotry, spousal desertion, and alcoholism?
Show Boat
Hamilton
- Lin-Manuel Miranda (writer and Alexander Hamilton)
- First successful rap musical
- Using a diverse case (represent more of a modern America)
- Plot: life during the time of Alexander Hamilton. Kind of a biography of his life.
- Modern Musical?
In the Heights
- Writer-songwriter: Lin- Manuel Miranda
- Hip-hop musical
- 1st major Latino Broadway show
- Salsa infused score
- Plot: Shows the day in the life of living in the Washington Heights neighborhood outside of NYC.
- Modern Musical?
Wicked
- Corporate musical
- Music: Stephen Schwartz
- Starring: Idina Menzel and Kristin Chenoweth
- Different reaction and experience between audience and actors. (Seeing a live musical)
- Plot: Retelling of the Wizard of Oz from the perspective of the witch.
Jersey Boys
- Frank Valli and the Four Seasons
- Music: Bob Gaudio
- Lyrics: Bob Crewe
- Book: Marshall Brickman and Rick Elice
- Plot: documentary that follows the formation, success, and the breakup of the 1960s rock-n-roll band, the Four Seasons.
- Jukebox musical
Mamma Mia!
- Composers: Benny Andersson and Bjorn Ulvaeus
- 1999: London
- 2001: Broadway
- Musical based on ABBA's music
- Plot: Takes place in Greece. Girl tries to find out who her father is.
- Jukebox musical
Urinetown
- Ridiculous satire (it's back on the broadway stage!)
- Really funny/comedy
- Music: Mark Hollman
- Lyrics: Mark Hollmann and Greg Koits
- Book: Greg Koits
- Parodies Threepenny Opera, The Cradle Will Rock, and Les Miserables
- Plot: People have the right to relieve themselves. Made fun of Big Business.
- Offered humor with an intelligent edge
- Modern musical
The Producers
- Based on Mel Brook's screen classic
- Music: Mel Brooks, arranged by Glen Kelley and Doug Besterman.
- Musical comedy
- Modern musical
- $485 for top ticket.
- Plot: Joke about a Broadway flop and the double of the ticket price (which actually happened!)
- Ridiculed theatre. Nothing was serious.
Aida
- Music: Elton John
- Lyrics: Tim Rice
- Book: Linda Woolverton, Robert Falls, and - David Henry Hwang
- Based on Verdi's opera (sad ending and all)
- Minimally technomusical/mega musical/corporate musical
- Plot: a princess falls in love with a soldier who is set to marry Pharaoh's daughter.
The Lion King
- Corporate musical
- 3rd longest running musical (still playing)
- Music: Elton John
- Lyrics: Tim Rice
- Director/Costumes: Julie Taymor
- Diverse Cast
- Modern musical set in Africa
Beauty and the Beast
- Walt Disney Productions (CEO: Michael Eisner)
- Corporate Musical
- Book: Linda Woolverton
- Music: Alan Menken
- Lyrics: Howard Ashman (lyric help: Tim Rice)
- Continuing of the techno musical
- Family friendly
- Meta-costuming (different on Broadway)
- Rivals Phantom of the Opera and its technology
Into the Woods
- Music: Stephen Sondheim
- Director-Librettist: James Lapine
- Only 769 performances
- Not a mega musical
- Agony song
- Plot: Good and Evil are opposite. A narration of a variety of fairy tales. A reverse of a theme.
Miss Saigon
- Based on Madam Butterfly
- Producer: Cameron Mackintosh
- Music: Claude-Michel Schonberg
- Lyrics: Alan Boubil and Richard Maltby
- West End: 1989
- Broadway: 1991
- 13th longest running musical
- The star of the show?
- Helicopter lands on the stage
- Mega Musical
- Plot: doomed romance of an Asian woman abandoned by her American lover. The setting is in Vietnam during the war.
Concept/Fragmented Musical
- Songs, music, dialogue, scenes are tied together in a theme instead of plot.
- Style, metaphor, message are focus in this type of musical
- Self-reflection and focus on the inner struggle of the individual actors
Mega Musical/Technomusical
- Spectacle over substance
- Sung through with little or any dialogue
- Songs and emotions are big
- Characterization often explained rather than dramatized
- Music: rock-pop
- Plots are melodramatic and over the top
- All major professional stagings are carbon copies
- Relies on theatre technology rather than real content
- A British phenomenon (Started at West End)
Corporate Musical
- Built, produced and managed by multi-functional entertainment corporations like Disney.
- Usually corporate sponsored or controlled
- Usually can tour
- Examples: Beauty and the Beast, Lion King, Miss Saigon, Guys and Dolls
New Amsterdam Theatre
- Located on Broadway
- Rooftop Garden
- Where Ziegfeld Follies performed
- Closed in 1936 due to the Great Depression
- Reorganized and reopened by Walt Disney for Disney musicals
- Timeline: 1914-1927: Ziegfeld Follies, 1937-1995: Fell into disrepair, 1995-present: Disney bought it. Started presenting Disney musicals there.
Jukebox Musicals
- Popsicles
- New musicals built around pop-songs
- Almost always book musicals
- Examples: Mamma Mia, Jersey Boys, Motown, Beautiful, Wicked
- Sometimes showcase famous pop stars + groups
Les Misérables
- Producer: Cameron Mackintosh
- Music: Claude-Michel Schonberg
- Lyrics: Alain Boubill
- Artistic director: Trevor Nunn
- Based on Victor Hugo Novel
- West End: 1985
- Overtook Cats as longest running musical
- Broadway: 1987
- 5th longest running musical
- The turntable (known mainly from this musical)
- Plot: Story of redemption.
- Sung all the way through, no dialogue
- mega-musical
Phantom of the Opera
- NOT AN OPERA
- Mega musical
- Chandelier Crash: Known mainly in this play for this.
- Music: Andrew Lloyd Webber
- Lyrics: Charles Hart
- Producer: Cameron Mackintosh
- West End: 1986 (still running)
- Broadway: 1988 (Still running, longest running musical to date)
- New record high for ticket sales ($45)
Cats
- Music: Andrew Lloyd Webber
- Producer: Cameron Mackintosh
- Choreographer: Gillian Lynne
- Artistic director: Trevor Nunn
- Stage Designer: John Napier
- Considered to be the first major megamusical
- Plot: Based on T.S. Eliot's Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats. Only has Cats as the characters.
- Family friendly
- West End: 1981 (21 year run)
- Broadway: 1982 (4th longest running musical on Broadway to this day)
Evita
- Music: Andrew Lloyd Webber
- Lyrics: Tim Rice
- Director: Hal Prince
- West End: 1978
- Broadway: 1979 (top 50 longest running musicals)
- Cast album was written first, then the musical.
- Mega Musical was born (substances starts to take the backseat to spectacle)
- Plot: the first lady of Argentina and her vie for power. (Disco music)
Sunday in the Park with George
- Music: Stephen Sondheim
- Director-Librettist:James Lupine
- Plot: about the painter, George Seurat
It explored the emotional struggle of being an artist.
- The musical ends with the scene of one of his most famous paintings.
- concept musical
Sweeney Todd
- Music: Stephen Sondheim
- Libretto: Hugh Wheeler
- Based on Revenge
- Plot: A barber kills people and backs them into pies and sells them.
- Explores what hate can make a person do and how far it can push the limits.
- Sondheim wanted to see how the audience would reach to a thriller like this.
- First musical thriller
A(n)__________ musical describes a musical in which a social or political agenda shares center stages with plot and is absolutely inseparable from the story.
issue-driven
A Chorus Line
- Music:Marvin Hamlisch
- Lyrics: Edward Kleban
- Libretto: James Kirkwood and Nicholas Dante
- Director-choreographer: Michael Bennett
- Pop with show biz
- 6,100 performances (only concept musical to live into the 90s)
- Lots of hype
- Plot: based around 17 actors auditioning for a production. Shows their personalities and feelings towards the study.
Godspell
- Music: Stephen Schwartz
- Rock Musical
- Multiracial
- Plot: About Jesus (wears a superman t-shirt). It's organized in a set of parables, mainly from the book of Matthew.
- 1973 Film (Day by Day)
Call Me Madame
- Music and lyrics: Irving Berlin
- Director: George Abbott
- Choreographer: Jerome Robins
- Starring Ethel Merman
- Golden Age
Guys and Dolls
- Music: Frank Loesser
- Golden Age
- Mostly diversionary
The Threepenny Opera
- Music: Kurt Weill
- Germany premier (1928) brought to the US in 1933 and failed
- Mark Blitzstein remake in 1952 SUCCESS
- Socialist critique of capitalist world
- Based on John Gay's the Beggar's Opera
Peter Pan
- Director and choreographer: Jerome Robins
- Starring Mary Martin as Peter Pan
- Golden Age
Gypsy
-Director and choreographer: Jerome Robbins
- Starring Ethel Merman
- Golden age
On the Town
- Director: George Abbott
- Music: Leonard Bernstein
- Choreography: Jerome Robins
- Golden age
Trouble in Tahiti
- music: Leonard Bernstein
- Libretto: Marc Blitzstein
- Opera, plays on Broadway
- Golden age
Candide
- Music: Leonard Bernstein
- Based on Voltaire
- Commercial failure
- Golden age
West Side Story
- music: Leonard Bernstein
- lyrics: Stephen Sondheim - DEBUT
- book: Arthur Laurents
- Choreography: Jerome Robbins
- Prejudice and acceptance, niave idealism
- Golden Age, issue driven
The Music Man
- Book, Music, and lyrics: Meredith Wilson (classical musician)
- Starring Robert Preston
- Beat West Side Story for best musical
- Golden Age
The Pajama Game
- Co-Directors: Jerome Robbins and George Abbott
- Choreographer: Bob Fosse
- Golden Age
- Based on novel: 7 ½ cents/
- Producer: Robert Griffith and Hal Prince
- Music and lyrics: Loesser, Richard Adler, and Jerry Ross
Dame Yankees
- Directors: Jerome Robbins and George Abbott
- Choreographer: Bob Fosse
- Golden Age
- Plot: Based off the legend day of Fouste!
Once Upon a Mattress
- Starring: Carol Burnett (made her career)
- Based off the Princess and the Pea
- Golden age
Fiorello!
- Book: George Abbott and Jerome Weidman
- Lyrics: Sheldon Harnick
- Semi-serious
- Based on NY Mayor Fiorello H. LaGuardia
- Golden Age
The Fantasticks
- Composer: Harvey Schmidt
- Lyrics and librettist: Tom Jones
- Longest running musical in history (42 years off Broadway)
- Plot: fake a family feud, so their kids will fall in love.
- A final critique of middle class America in 1950s.
Finian's Rainbow
- Lyricist-librettist: EY Harburg
- Music: Burton Lane
- Gospel and R&B influences
- An attack on bigotry and racism
- Plot: Two Irish immigrants( also African American) that move to Missitucky. Og the Leprechaun. Billboard Rockens becomes African-American throughout the play.
- Golden age, Race Relation musical
Street Scene
- Music: Kurt Weill
- Libretto: Elmer Rice (Based on his play)
- Lyrics: Langston Hughes (African-American poet and social activist).
- Broadway Opera
- Plot: the daily life of individuals that live in the same block of apartments.
- Golden age, Race relationship musical
Lost in the Stars
- Music: Kurt Weill
- Libretto: Maxwell Anderson
- Plot: about Apartheid (South Africa), but showed parallels and as an analogy to Jim Crow laws.
- Broadway Opera
- Dealt with Idealism and Bigotry
- Based on the novel Cry, the Beloved Country
- Actually used some of the jail robes at costumes
- Golden age, race relation musical
No Strings
- Book: Samuel A. Taylor
- Music and Lyrics: Richard Rodgers
- This is his only credit as a composer and lyricist
- First production after the death of Oscar Hammerstein II
- Plot: a love affair between a white writer and a black model
- Dealt with civil rights and racial issues going on during the time in which it was written
- Golden age, race relation musical
Follies
- Music: Stephen Sondheim
- Director: Hal Prince
- Choreographer: Michael Bennett
- Libretto: James Goldman
- Plot: Reflects on the Ziegfeld Follies during the time between the World Wars
- Concept musical
Company
- Music: Stephen Sondheim
- Director: Hal Prince
- 1st on purpose concept musical
- Focus on married life in NYC
Rent
- Based on: LaBoheme
- Pop rock opera
- Music and book: Jonathan Larson (dies days before the opening)
- Issue Driven Musical
- Plot: young artists trying to survive in NYC. Deals with real issues such as HIV/AIDS.
Annie
- Music: Charles Strouse (Bye Bye Birdie)
- Music has a subtle rock beat
- Lyrics: Martin Charmin
- Libretto: Thomas Mechan
- Little Orphan Annie
- Issue driven musical
Two Gentleman of Verona
- Music: Galt Mac Dermot (Hair)
- Book and lyrics: John Guare
- Multicultural work, retelling of Shakespeare comedy with same name
- Rock musical
Dreamgirls
- All white writers
- Music: Henry Krieger
- Lyrics and Book: Tom Eyen
- Plot: the story of a young female singing trio from Chicago, "the Dreams", who become music superstars
- Celebrated Motown and depicted cutthroat industry
- Issue driven musical
The Wiz
- Score: Charlie Smalls
- Book: William F. Brown
- Director: Geoffrey Holder
- A retelling of the Wizard of OZ to a Motown Beat
- Helped with Broadway's acceptance of an all black cast
- Issue driven musical
Hair
- Music: Galt MacDermot
- 1st "unintentional" concept musical
- Encapsulates the rebellious attitude of the 60s.
- Lyrics and libretto: Gerome Ragni and James Rado
- "An American tribal love-rock musical"
Helped Broadway songs become hits again.
1776
- Music and lyrics: Sherman Edwards (former history teacher)
- Libretto: Peter Stone
- Healthy dose of patriotism
- Wanted to show that the founding fathers were actually real
- Success: 1217 performances
Cabaret
- Music: John Kander
- Director/Producer: Hal Prince
- Lyrics: Fred Ebb
- Libretto: Joe Masteroff
- Based off of the play, I am a Camera
Man of La Mancha
- Libretto: Dale Wasserman
- Music: Mitch Leight
- Lyrics: Joe Darion
- Based on the play "I, Don Quixote" by Wasserman
- Idealism of working for the better of the world
Fiddler on the Roof
- Libretto: Joseph Stein
- Music: Jerry Bock
- Lyrics: Sheldon Harnick
- Director: Jerome Robbins
- Generation Gap
- Longest running Broadway show
- Prejudice and tolerance
- Golden age, jewish musical, race relation musical
Funny Girl
- Score: Jule Styne and Bob Merill
- Director: Jerome Robbins
- Producer: Herbert Ross
- Plot: based on the biography of Fanny Brice.
- Starred: Barbra Streisand (this is what made her famous)
- Golden age, jewish musical
I Do! I Do!
- Score: Harvey Schmidt and Tom Jones
- Director: Gower Champion
- Cast: Mary Martin and Robert Preston
- Plot: a couple living together in daily life. Same setting the whole time (in bedroom).
- Not a hit!
Hello, Dolly!
- Libretto: Michael Stewart
- Composer + Lyricist: Jerry Herman
- Director: Gower Champion
- Conceived for Ethel Merman, but couldn't perform because she burst a blood vessel in her throat.
- Dolly: Carol Channing
- Plot: a matchmaker/widow who tries to set other people up. She ends up planning her own wedding as well.
- Louis Armstrong made the production into a hit song.
- 1969 film: Barbra Streisand
- Longest running broadway until Fiddler on the Roof
Bye Bye Birdie
- Libretto: Michael Stewart
- Music: Charles Strouse (Introduced rock and roll to the Broadway show)
- Lyrics: Lee Adams
- Director: Gower Champion
- Plot: Conway Birdie gave a girl a kiss on the Tim Sullivan Show. Based off of Elvis Presley.
- Golden Age
- 1963 film version
Frank Leosser
- Wrote the music for Guys and Dolls and How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying
- The book and score for Most Happy Fella
- He died of lung cancer
- He mentored Meredith Wilson (The Music Man)
Marc Blitzstein
- American composer, lyricist, and librettist
- Helped write The Cradle Will Rock and The Threepenny Opera
Kurt Weill
- German composer and activist
- Worked with Bertolt Brecht
- Wrote music for The Threepenny Opera
Jerome Robbins
- Classically trained dancer, studied acting, director
- Worked in ballets, broadway, tv, and film
- Some productions: On the town, Peter Pan, West Side Story, Gypsy, Fiddler on the Roof
Leonard Bernstein
- American composer, conductor, pianist, etc.
- Wrote the music for West Side Story, Peter Pan, Candide, and On the Town
George Abbott
- American theater producer, actor, playwright, film director, screenwriter
- Main works: Damn Yankees, the Pajama Game, Call Me Madame, Fiorello!, Pal Joey, Once Upon a Mattress, Chicago
- Worked with Richard Rodgers and Sheldon Harnick
Mary Martin
- American actress, singer, and Broadway star
- In South Pacific and Marta in the Sound of Music
- Leading role in Peter Pan
Stephen Sondheim
- American composer and lyricist
- Known for thinking outside the normal and challenging the audience in his productions
- Creator of the concept musical
- Major works: Company, Assassins, West Side Story (debut), Sunday in the Park with George, Sweeney Todd, Into the Woods
- Worked with Hal Prince and James Lapine
Arthur Laurents
- American playwright, stage director, and screenwriter
- Produced West Side Story, Gypsy, and Anastasia
Meredith Wilson
- American composer and playwright
- Wrote the book, music, and lyrics for The Music Man
- He was mentored by Frank Leosser
Bob Fosse
- American dancer, choreographer, director, screenwriter, film director, and actor
- Director of Carbaret
- Known for the movement in his shoulders and knees, sometimes he used a hat motion. (Can be seen in some Michael Jackson music videos)
- Choreographed the dancing in the films: The Pajama Game and Damn Yankees
Co-wrote and directed All That Jazz
Carol Burnett
- American actress, singer, comedian
- Performed in Once Upon a Mattress
Gower Champion
- American actor, theatre director, choreographer, and dancer
- Main works: Bye Bye Birdie, Hello, Dolly!, Carnival!, I Do! I Do! (director and choreographer)
Carol Channing
- American actress, singer, dancer, and comedian
- Characters are very expressive and recognizable voice
- Starred: Gentlemen Prefer Blondes(Diamonds are a girl's best friend)
- Hello, Dolly! (Best production!)
Louis Armstrong
- American trumpeter, composer, singer, actor
- Biggest selling record: Hello, Dolly!
Robert Preston
Stage and film actor mainly know for acting as Professor Harold Hill in The Music Man
Fanny Brice
- Was a Ziegfeld Follie
- She was known mainly for her humor and not her beauty
- Funny Girl is a biography of her life
Barbra Streisand
- Singer, songwriter, actress, film director
- Well-known for her acting in Funny Girl and I Can Get it For You Wholesale
Joseph Stein
- Playwright
- Fiddler on the Roof
- Jewish
Jerry Bock
- Composer and Lyricist
- Composed the music for Fiddler on the Roof
Fiorello!
- Worked with Sheldon Harnick
Sheldon Harnick
- Lyricist for Fiddler on the Roof
- Jewish
Harold Prince
- Director
- Guru of the concept musical, but did not like the title
- A Few productions: The Pajama Game, A Family Affair, Company, Follies, Sweeney Todd, West Side Story, Damn Yankees, Fiorello!, Cabaret
Galt MacDermot
- Canadian-American composer, writer, pianist
- Hair and Two Gentlemen of Verona
- Main songs: Aquarius, Good Morning, Starshine, Let the Sunshine In
Michael Bennett
- Director, writer, choreographer, and dancer
- Choreographed: Follies, A Chorus Line, Dreamgirls and Company
- Contemporary of Bob Fosse
James Lapine
- Director, playwright, screenwriter, and librettist
- Worked with Sondheim
- Into the Woods, Passion, Sunday in the Park with George (wrote the book)
Andrew Lloyd Webber
- English composer
- Wrote music for Phantom of the Opera, Evita, Jesus Christ Superstar, Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat, Cats
Tim Rice
- American author and lyricist
- Worked with Andrew Lloyd Webber
- Helped write: Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat, Jesus Christ Superstar, Evita
- Helped Elton John with The Lion King and Aida
Cameron Mackintosh
- The individual behind the marketing of just one image for a musical
- Were well-known British producer
- Major works include: Les Mésrables, Mary Poppins, Hamilton, Cats, Miss Saigon
Claude-Michel Schonberg
- French producer, actor, singer, songwriter
- Worked with Alain Boublil
- Composed for Les Miserables and Miss Saigon
Alain Boubil
- Tusian lyricist and librettist for musicals on Broadway and in West End
- Worked with Claude-Michel Schonberg
- Major works include: Miss Saigon, Les Mésrables, etc.
Stephen Schwartz
- American lyricist and composer
- Composer for Wicked, Godspell, Pippin
Lin-Manuel Miranda
- Writer/producer of Into the Heights and Hamilton
- Of Puerto Rican Descent