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earliest known record of the practice of the art of the apothecary
2600 B.C.
priest + pharmacist + physician
first recorded symptoms of illness, prescription and directions for compounding, and invocation to the gods

Ancient China

shen nung investigated medicinal value of several hundred herbs
2000 B.C.

Ancient Egypt

papyrus ebers - pharmaceutical record of 800 prescriptions including 700 drugs
1500 B.C.
echelons - gatherers and preparers of drugs
cheifs of fabrication - head pharmacist


father of botany
300 B.C.


experimenter in drug compounding
120 - 200 A.D.
practiced and taught pharmacy and medicine in rome
originator of formula for cold cream

Damian and Cosmas

pharmacy's patron saints
damian - apothecary
cosmas - physician
brothers of arabian descent that provided medicinal and religious solace


first privately owned drug stores
late 8th century
separation of apothecary and physician


pharmacy first separated from medicine
1240 A.D.


first official pharmacopeia
nuovo receptario - legal standard in 1498
result of collaboration of guild of apotecaries and the medical society


society of apothecaries
first organization of pharmacists and anglo-saxon world

Marshall Apothecary, Philadelphia

christopher marshall - irish immigrant that established his first shop
leading retail store, large scale chemical manufacturing, training school for pharmacists
managed by elizabeth marshall, america's first female pharmacist


colonial america's first hospital, 1751
first hospital pharmacy, 1752
philadelphia college of pharmacy, 1821

Carl Wilhelm Scheele

discovered oxygen, chlorine, nitroglycerin, and many more in the back of his pharmacy

Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Serturner

gave the world morphine
recognized the alkaloids

Jonathan Roberts

first hospital pharmacist, philadelphia


opened to all pharaceutists and druggists of good character that subscribed to its code of ethics

Daniel B. Smith

first president of APA

William Procter, Jr.

first secretary of APA

Dr. Albert B. Prescott

launched pharmacy course at the university of michigan, 1868
abandoned apprenticeship requirement, and a definite curriculum demanded student's full-time attention

Parke, Davis & Company

introduced standardized "liquor ergotae purificatus", 1879
received first U.S. biological license, 1903

Behring and Roux

announced effectiveness of diphtheria antitoxin, 1984


first pharmaceutical manufacturing

1906 Pure Food & Drugs Act

established FDA
ensured correctly labeled products

1938 Federal Food, Drug, & Cosmetic Act

safety of drugs

1951 Durham-Humphrey Amendment to FDC act

defined prescription and OTCs
efficacy of drugs

1970 Controlled Substances Act

created DEA
created schedule I, II, III, IV, and V drug categories

1990 OBRA

pharmacists must offer to counsel patients

First Doctor of Pharmacy Graduates

USC, 1958

Medicare Part D

creates "provider status" for pharmacists and reimburses for medication therapy management, 2006

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