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29 terms

History of Pharmacy

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Babylonia
earliest known record of the practice of the art of the apothecary
2600 B.C.
priest + pharmacist + physician
first recorded symptoms of illness, prescription and directions for compounding, and invocation to the gods
Ancient China
shen nung investigated medicinal value of several hundred herbs
2000 B.C.
Ancient Egypt
papyrus ebers - pharmaceutical record of 800 prescriptions including 700 drugs
1500 B.C.
echelons - gatherers and preparers of drugs
cheifs of fabrication - head pharmacist
Theophrastus
father of botany
300 B.C.
Galen
experimenter in drug compounding
120 - 200 A.D.
practiced and taught pharmacy and medicine in rome
originator of formula for cold cream
Damian and Cosmas
pharmacy's patron saints
damian - apothecary
cosmas - physician
brothers of arabian descent that provided medicinal and religious solace
Baghdad
first privately owned drug stores
late 8th century
separation of apothecary and physician
Sicily
pharmacy first separated from medicine
1240 A.D.
Florence
first official pharmacopeia
nuovo receptario - legal standard in 1498
result of collaboration of guild of apotecaries and the medical society
London
society of apothecaries
1617
first organization of pharmacists and anglo-saxon world
Marshall Apothecary, Philadelphia
christopher marshall - irish immigrant that established his first shop
1729
leading retail store, large scale chemical manufacturing, training school for pharmacists
managed by elizabeth marshall, america's first female pharmacist
Philadelphia
colonial america's first hospital, 1751
first hospital pharmacy, 1752
philadelphia college of pharmacy, 1821
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
discovered oxygen, chlorine, nitroglycerin, and many more in the back of his pharmacy
Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Serturner
gave the world morphine
recognized the alkaloids
Jonathan Roberts
first hospital pharmacist, philadelphia
APA
opened to all pharaceutists and druggists of good character that subscribed to its code of ethics
Daniel B. Smith
first president of APA
William Procter, Jr.
first secretary of APA
Dr. Albert B. Prescott
launched pharmacy course at the university of michigan, 1868
abandoned apprenticeship requirement, and a definite curriculum demanded student's full-time attention
Parke, Davis & Company
introduced standardized "liquor ergotae purificatus", 1879
received first U.S. biological license, 1903
Behring and Roux
announced effectiveness of diphtheria antitoxin, 1984
Germany
first pharmaceutical manufacturing
1906 Pure Food & Drugs Act
established FDA
ensured correctly labeled products
1938 Federal Food, Drug, & Cosmetic Act
safety of drugs
1951 Durham-Humphrey Amendment to FDC act
defined prescription and OTCs
efficacy of drugs
1970 Controlled Substances Act
created DEA
created schedule I, II, III, IV, and V drug categories
1990 OBRA
pharmacists must offer to counsel patients
First Doctor of Pharmacy Graduates
USC, 1958
Medicare Part D
creates "provider status" for pharmacists and reimburses for medication therapy management, 2006