3500 Final - Chapter 17

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At what age are people most satisfied with their body?72 because up until that point you always have something you want to change but by 72 you are just glad you can do basic things with your bodyCentenarypeople over age 100What is the secret to long life?manage stress wellNumber one country in amount of centenary peopleJapanUSA ranks ____ in amount of people over 1005th!!! (83% women, 82% white women, most are urban dwellers, only 1/3 of them live alone, midwest and northeast geographically)Of the centenary people in the USA, how many live alone and where do they typically live?1/3 live alone and normally in the midwest/northeast in urban areasGerontologyStudy of aged & aging processGeriatricsbranch of medicine concerned with process of aging & conditions & diseases of old ageFunctional agehow well a person functions in a physical and social environment compared with others of the same agePeople with a higher functional age perform _____worse!!!USA life expectancy has increased from ___ to ____66 to 78Life expectancy is greater where and among who?developing countries white womenOf people who survive until 85, who lives longer by %?black peopleWhy are death rates from diseases that affect older people decreasing?preventative care, vaccines, better medicine, technology, modifying basic process of agingGenetic-programming theoriesTheories that explain biological aging as the result of a genetically determined developmental timetableSenescence- switching on and off certain genes Ex. In menopause you turn off estrogen and when you age turn off collagenEndocrine Theoryhormones control the pace of aging ex. human growth hormoneImmunological theorydecline in function of immune system leads to greater risk of infection or deathEvolutionary Theoryas body deteriorates after ability to reproduce is gone - Go down hill after you cant reproduce anymoreIf you can improve function of immune system you can decrease risk of secondary infections and live longerimmunological theory!!Variable-rate (error) theories- Cells are damaged & wear out every day by free radicals - higher an organism's metabolism = shorter life span (ex. bugs)Autoimmune disease are responsible for some age-related disordersget progressively worse as you age ex. rheumatoid arthritis, lupusCaloric Restriction and Life Spancaloric restriction in every group except humans resulted in them living longercaloric restriction in elderly800-900 caloriesWhat affects changes in body systems?- disease - lifestyleT/F: most body systems during old age continue to function fairly welltrueHeart becomes _____ susceptible to disease. why?more; cardiopulmonary system has less reserveWhat happens to neurons as you age?- neurons shrink or are lost - nervous system responses slowNeurofibulary tanglesbegin at this age and are a sign of alzheimersAlthough you can make new synaptic pathways in old age, you're still ______losing stuff quicklyT/F: brain can grow new neurons and develop new neural pathways late in life.trueVisual and Hearing Problemsmay occur, but can be corrected with glasses/hearing aidesMacular degenerationblurry visionGlaucomatoo much pressure on optic nerveAge-related macular degeneration & glaucoma may ________cause irreversible damageLost of taste and smell may lead to _____poor nutritionWhy is strength and resistance training important?increases BMDSleep issuesdon't sleep as well and dreaming declinesMany older adults remain sexually active, however the _____ and ______ declinesfrequency and intensityPoor nutrition could be impacted by ______loss of teeth, loss of taste and smell____ % of older adults have 1 chronic condition and ____ % have 280%; 50%Do chronic conditions normally limit activities to a great extent?noLeading causes of death among old people 5heart disease, diabetes, pulmonary disease, hypertension, CVAHow can you manage chronic diseases?good resources and insuranceProportion of older adults with physical disabilities has ______declined____ % of old people can do ADLs90%T/F: most older adults are in good mental healthtrueAlzheimer's- becomes more prevalent with age - behavioral & drug therapy can slow the disease - early diagnosis helps - strongly heritableiADLsbanking, phone, etc.Alzheimer's behavioral therapyput index cards out so they know what things areDrug therapy for Alzheimer'sslows progression and breaks down the plaque in arteries (does not cure anything)Depression is ________ in this age group because __________underdiagnosed; they don't want to admit they need help - friends and spouses are dying, harder to stay busy, lonelyOld men and depression- less likely to admit they need help - less support while in nursing home because not many menWays to test for alzheimers- cognitive tests (animals you know example) - CT scanTreatment of alzheimer's1. anticholinergic drugs 2. immunotherapy to break down plaque in arteries 3. behavioral therapyPerformance IQ is similar to _________fluid intelligence________ intelligence increasescrystallizedBaltes' dual-process modelMaybe processing speed isn't so good, but your pragmatic skills are better (problem solving improves and they know what to do/how things will play out)How can they improve cognitive function?be active, do things, have fun experiencesCognitive development in old people- slowing of CNS function affects speed of processing information - most people don't decline in every areaSeattle Longitudinal StudyFew decline in all areas; many improve in some - use it or lose itAbility to perform ADLs ______ with agedeclines____% can still do ADLs with no help90%What happens to old people's ability to solve emotional or interpersonal problems?does not decline; still sharpHow can they recover competence & surpass previous attainmentsby training their brain (considerable plasticity)Semantic memorylong term memoryProcedural memoryremember how to walk, do the breast stroke, etc.Sensory, semantic and procedural memorynearly as efficient as in younger adultswhat aspects of memory decline?- short term/working memory - ability to recall specific events - ability to recall recently learned infoHow can the bran compensate for age-related declines in memory?by using other/additional regions of the brainmuch of the decline in memory function can be attributed to what?neurological changes & declines in perpetual speedMetamemoryawareness of memoryResults of metamemory studiessome older adults may overestimate their memory loss - could be attributed to stereotypes about aging - we push things off because they are oldBalte's theorywisdom is NOT age related - bad at giving advice at age 30 will still be bad at giving advice at 80Keeping older people more mentally alert by...reading, traveling, etc.When do older adults learn better?when materials and methods are geared toward their own age group (ex. chalk rather than powerpoint)