Unit 4 - The Gilded Age
Terms in this set (23)
American Protective Association
Nativist organization that attacked "New Immigrants" and Roman Catholicism in the 1880s and 1890s.
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
The first major legal restriction on immigration to the U.S.; prohibited further unskilled Chinese immigration in order to reduce competition for jobs.
"Waving the Bloody Shirt"
Refers to the practice of politicians referencing the blood of martyrs or heroes to criticize opponents.
Gilded Age Presidents
Ulysses S. Grant
(1869-77) - Plagued by a variety of scandals.
Rutherford B. Hayes
(1877-81) - Tried to restore honesty to the government after the corruption of the Grant Administration.
(1881) - Assassinated.
Chester A. Arthur
(1881-1885) - Supported civil service reform to address the
(1885-89) - Won the support of reform-minded
(1889-93) - Overshadowed by a powerful
Billion Dollar Congress
(1893-97) - Lost the support of the of labor unions & the agrarian wing of the Democratic Party.
Grant Administration Scandals
(1869) - Financial tycoons Jim Fisk and Jay Gould bribed officials in Grant's cabinet to ignore their attempts to corner the gold market; led to the Panic of 1869.
* (1872) -
Panic of 1873 (1873-1879)
A severe international economic depression triggered by overproduction of railroads, mines, factories and farm products.
Led to the
Railroad Strike of 1877
A political faction of the Republican Party; favored the spoils system and political machines.
A political faction of the Republican Party; favored civil-service reform and the merit system.
James G. Blaine
Pendleton Act (1883)
Civil Service Commission
to ensure that hiring of federal employees was based on examinations and merit rather than political patronage.
Significantly reduced federal patronage from powerful office-seekers thus forcing politicians to look increasingly to corporations for campaign funds.
Republican-controlled Congress known for its lavish spending.
McKinley Tariff of 1890
- Increased duties on foreign goods to about 50 percent.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890
- Allowed the government to buy more silver to produce currency.
Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
- Prohibited certain business activities that reduce competition in the marketplace.
The new time- and labor-saving technology required significant expenditures, which often had to be borrowed with interest charged by the banks.
The availability of land was limited because so much had been granted to railroad companies or sold to land speculators.
States often rewarded railroad and grain companies with reduced taxes with the remainder paid for by private citizens.
The high cost to store and ship grains and crops.
Formed to educate its members about new developments in agriculture and to create a social and culture bond among farmers.
Led to the passage of *"Granger Laws" regulating the railroads and grain elevator operators; challenged in a series of landmark Court decisions.
A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy.
Mary Elizabeth Lease
Gilded Age Court Cases
Munn v. Illinois
(1877) - Allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.
Wabash v. Illinois (1886) - Severely limited the rights of states to control interstate commerce; led to the creation of the
Interstate Commerce Commission
United States v. E. C. Knight Company (1895) - Limited the government's power to control monopolies. The Court ruled that manufacturing was a local activity not subject to congressional regulation of interstate commerce.
Interstate Commerce Act (1887)
Law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry; created the
Interstate Commerce Commission
to railroads and ensure that they complied with the new regulations.
Short-lived political party based among poor, white cotton farmers in the South and hard-pressed wheat farmers in the Plains states.
James B. Weaver, Thomas E. Watson, William Jennings Bryan
Hostility to banks, railroads, and elites generally.
Omaha Platform (1892)
Political agenda adopted by the Populist Party in 1892.
Called for unlimited coinage of silver (bimetallism), government regulation of railroads and industry, graduated income tax, and a number of election reforms.
An election in which party members select people to run in the general election.
Procedure whereby voters can remove an elected official from office.
Procedure enabling voters to reject a measure passed by the legislature.
A serious economic depression triggered over-speculation in the railroad industry and a run on the gold supply.
and a wave of strikes including he
Coxey's Army (1894)
A protest march by unemployed workers; led by Ohio businessman Jacob Coxey.
Election of 1896
William McKinley (Republican) vs.
William Jennings Bryan
McKinley carried the large industrial Northern states, winning the election.
Last election for the Populist Party.