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Unit 4 - The Gilded Age

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American Protective Association
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Terms in this set (23)
Ulysses S. Grant (1869-77) - Plagued by a variety of scandals.
Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-81) - Tried to restore honesty to the government after the corruption of the Grant Administration.
James Garfield (1881) - Assassinated.
Chester A. Arthur (1881-1885) - Supported civil service reform to address the patronage problem.
Grover Cleveland (1885-89) - Won the support of reform-minded Mugwumps.
Benjamin Harrison (1889-93) - Overshadowed by a powerful Billion Dollar Congress.
Grover Cleveland (1893-97) - Lost the support of the of labor unions & the agrarian wing of the Democratic Party.
Created the Civil Service Commission to ensure that hiring of federal employees was based on examinations and merit rather than political patronage.
Historical Significance:
Significantly reduced federal patronage from powerful office-seekers thus forcing politicians to look increasingly to corporations for campaign funds.
Republican-controlled Congress known for its lavish spending.
Key Legislation:
McKinley Tariff of 1890 - Increased duties on foreign goods to about 50 percent.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 - Allowed the government to buy more silver to produce currency.
Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 - Prohibited certain business activities that reduce competition in the marketplace.
Major Causes:
The new time- and labor-saving technology required significant expenditures, which often had to be borrowed with interest charged by the banks.
The availability of land was limited because so much had been granted to railroad companies or sold to land speculators.
States often rewarded railroad and grain companies with reduced taxes with the remainder paid for by private citizens.
The high cost to store and ship grains and crops.
Munn v. Illinois (1877) - Allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.
Wabash v. Illinois (1886) - Severely limited the rights of states to control interstate commerce; led to the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
United States v. E. C. Knight Company (1895) - Limited the government's power to control monopolies. The Court ruled that manufacturing was a local activity not subject to congressional regulation of interstate commerce.