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wealthy president of the Continental Congress and "King of Smugglers"

John Hancock

British minister who raised a storm of protest by passing the Stamp Act

George Grenville

legislation passed in 1765 but repealed the next year, after colonial resisance made it impossible to enforce

Stamp Act

women and men who enforced the nonimportation agreements (boycott), sometimes by coercive means

Sons and Daughters of Liberty

minister whose clever attempt to impose import taxes nearly succeeded but eventually brewed trouble for Britain

"Champagne Charley" Townshend

alleged leader of radical protesters killed in Boston Massacre

Crispus Attucks

stubborn ruler, lustful for power; served by compliant ministers like Lord North

George III

zealous defender of the common people's rights and organizer of undergroup propoganda committees

Samuel Adams

event organized by disguised "Indians" to sabotage British support of British East India Company monopoly

Boston Tea Party

harsh measures of retaliation for a tea party, including the Boston Port Act

Intolerable Acts

British royal governor who encouraged runaway slaves to join his army

Lord Dunmore

body, led by Samuel Adams, that issued a Declaration of Rights and ordered The Association to boycott all British goods

First Continental Congress

19 year old major general in the Revolutionary army

Marquis de Lafayette

organizational genius who turned raw colonial recruits into tough professional soldiers

Baron von Steuben

legislation that required colonists to feed and shelter British troops and led to suspension of the New York legislature upon its refusal to obey

Quartering Act

the basic economic and political theory by which 17th and 18th century European powers governed their overseas colonies


the set of Parliamentary laws, first passed in 1650, that restricted colonial trade and directed it to the benefit of Britain

Navigation Acts

term for products, such as tobacco, that could be shipped only to England and not to foreign markets

enumerated goods

hated British courts in which juries were not allowed and defendants were assumed guilty until proven innocent


British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members

virtual representation

the effective form of organized colonial resistance against the Stamp Act, which made homespun clothing fashionable

nonimportation agreements or boycott

item taxed under the Townshend Acts that generated the greatest colonial resistance


underground networks of communication and propoganda, established by Samuel Adams, that sustained colonial resistance

committees of correspondence

religion that was granted toleration in the trans-Allegheny West by the Quebec Act, arousing deep colonial hostility


British political party opposed to Lord North's Tories and generally more sympathetic to the colonial cause


German mercenaries hired by George III to fight the American revolutionaries


currency authorized by Congress to finance the Revolution and depreciated to near worthless


effective organization created by the First Continental Congress to provide a total, unified boycott of all British goods

the Association

rapidly mobilized colonial militiamen whose refusal to disperse sparked the first battle of the Revolution


term for British regular troops, scorned as "lobster backs" and "bloody backs" by Bostonians and other colonials


The British theory of mercantilism, by which the colonies were governed, held that

the colonial economy should be carefully controlled to serve the mother country's needs

One of the ways in which mercantilism harmed the colonial economy was

by inhibiting the development of banking and paper currency in the colonies

The mobilization of "nonimportation" policies against the the Stamp Act was politcally important because

it aroused revolutionary fervor among many ordinary American me and women

The British troops killed in the Boston Massacre had been sent to the city as a result of

disruptive colonial resistance to the Townshend Acts' tax on tea and other products

The British reacted to the Boston Tea Party by

closing the Port of Boston until damages were paid and order restored

American colonists especially resented the Townshend Acts because

the revenues from the taxation would go to support the British officials and judges in America

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