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Chapter 7: The Road to Revolution

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wealthy president of the Continental Congress and "King of Smugglers"
John Hancock
British minister who raised a storm of protest by passing the Stamp Act
George Grenville
legislation passed in 1765 but repealed the next year, after colonial resisance made it impossible to enforce
Stamp Act
women and men who enforced the nonimportation agreements (boycott), sometimes by coercive means
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
minister whose clever attempt to impose import taxes nearly succeeded but eventually brewed trouble for Britain
"Champagne Charley" Townshend
alleged leader of radical protesters killed in Boston Massacre
Crispus Attucks
stubborn ruler, lustful for power; served by compliant ministers like Lord North
George III
zealous defender of the common people's rights and organizer of undergroup propoganda committees
Samuel Adams
event organized by disguised "Indians" to sabotage British support of British East India Company monopoly
Boston Tea Party
harsh measures of retaliation for a tea party, including the Boston Port Act
Intolerable Acts
British royal governor who encouraged runaway slaves to join his army
Lord Dunmore
body, led by Samuel Adams, that issued a Declaration of Rights and ordered The Association to boycott all British goods
First Continental Congress
19 year old major general in the Revolutionary army
Marquis de Lafayette
organizational genius who turned raw colonial recruits into tough professional soldiers
Baron von Steuben
legislation that required colonists to feed and shelter British troops and led to suspension of the New York legislature upon its refusal to obey
Quartering Act
the basic economic and political theory by which 17th and 18th century European powers governed their overseas colonies
mercantilism
the set of Parliamentary laws, first passed in 1650, that restricted colonial trade and directed it to the benefit of Britain
Navigation Acts
term for products, such as tobacco, that could be shipped only to England and not to foreign markets
enumerated goods
hated British courts in which juries were not allowed and defendants were assumed guilty until proven innocent
Admiralty
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members
virtual representation
the effective form of organized colonial resistance against the Stamp Act, which made homespun clothing fashionable
nonimportation agreements or boycott
item taxed under the Townshend Acts that generated the greatest colonial resistance
tea
underground networks of communication and propoganda, established by Samuel Adams, that sustained colonial resistance
committees of correspondence
religion that was granted toleration in the trans-Allegheny West by the Quebec Act, arousing deep colonial hostility
Catholicism
British political party opposed to Lord North's Tories and generally more sympathetic to the colonial cause
Whigs
German mercenaries hired by George III to fight the American revolutionaries
Hessians
currency authorized by Congress to finance the Revolution and depreciated to near worthless
continentals
effective organization created by the First Continental Congress to provide a total, unified boycott of all British goods
the Association
rapidly mobilized colonial militiamen whose refusal to disperse sparked the first battle of the Revolution
minutemen
term for British regular troops, scorned as "lobster backs" and "bloody backs" by Bostonians and other colonials
redcoats
The British theory of mercantilism, by which the colonies were governed, held that
the colonial economy should be carefully controlled to serve the mother country's needs
One of the ways in which mercantilism harmed the colonial economy was
by inhibiting the development of banking and paper currency in the colonies
The mobilization of "nonimportation" policies against the the Stamp Act was politcally important because
it aroused revolutionary fervor among many ordinary American me and women
The British troops killed in the Boston Massacre had been sent to the city as a result of
disruptive colonial resistance to the Townshend Acts' tax on tea and other products
The British reacted to the Boston Tea Party by
closing the Port of Boston until damages were paid and order restored
American colonists especially resented the Townshend Acts because
the revenues from the taxation would go to support the British officials and judges in America