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BME Exam 3 ON FINAL
Terms in this set (20)
What is blood made of (in your answer include the fluid, major cell types, and molecules)
42% Packed Red Blood Cells
1% White Blood Cells
H2O, Ions, Elements and Vitamins, O2/CO2
Draw a diagram of the human heart and label its parts and major vessels
Provide a diagram that shows how blood flows through the heart
Provide a diagram showing the spread of electrical excitation in the human heart and the corresponding signal measured via an ECG
Provide a diagram that compares blood pressure, the velocity of blood flow and total area of the large arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins
What is Atherosclerosis? Describe one bioengineering approach for its treatment
It is the narrowing of an artery's lumen because of material or the wall thickening
The buildup contains Lipids and Cholesterol crystals, macrophages, proteins, etc.
Bioengineering approach to combat atherosclerosis is the use of angioplasty.
Small balloon catheter is inserted into vein and inflated to allow blood flow.
Catheter inflation flattens plaque and helps blood flow
How does the major blood supply of the liver differ from that of the kidney?
The liver has two input sources of blood flow, the first being the supply of oxygenated blood from the heart and the second being deoxygenated, nutrient and enzyme rich blood from the GI tract
What is the structural unit of the liver, (B) describe how it is designed.
A) The liver Lobule
B) Has a central vein surrounded by hepatic sinusoids and has two sources of blood, one from the Hepatic Artery that carries oxygenated blood and one from the Hepatic Portal Vein which carries nutrient and enzyme-rich blood from the GI tract, both of which are drained in the hepatic vein
What is meant by the term biotransformation and how does it aid excretion of fat soluble compounds?
The chemical modifications made by an organism on a chemical compound
It oxygenates organic molecules
What is meant by 1st pass metabolism and why is important to the fields of pharmacology & drug delivery?
The initial phase of absorption of drug which results in 70% of the drug being metabolized (chemically changed)
It's important to take this into account when preparing doses of drug for people. It is also necessary to ensure that the metabolic changes that occur do not create an abundance of exceedingly toxic material
List four functions of the kidney.
Removal of water-soluble waste products and excess water
Removal of the urea (derived from amino acid metabolism)
In response to antidiuretic hormone (ADH) controls the amount of water in urine
Production of erythropoietin (blood cell formation) and enzymes
A) In the context of this course, what is meant by the term "Mechanics". B) Describe four subfields of the study of mechanics (2 from classical mechanics and 2 from continuum mechanics)
A) Mechanics: branch of science concerned with the behavior of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of those bodies on their environment. (essentially, Newtonian mechanics in physics)
B) Classical: study of non-deformable objects in statics (no movement) and dynamics (movement). Continuum: Study of forces on deformable objects including solid mechanics (solid deformable objects) and fluid mechanics (fluids and solid deformable objects in fluids)
A) Define the term deformation. (B) Describe how plastic deformation is different than elastic deformation
Deformation: a change in the shape or size of an object (fractures for example)
Elastic: Material deforms but can still go back to original shape because of relative molecular structure is unchanged. Plastic: Material deforms and remains in the deformed shape even after the force is removed. Underlying molecular structure has been changed
Provide a diagram that shows a typical stress strain curve, label its axis (including appropriate units), describe five properties that can be determined from the curve
Strain (x-axis): Percent Elongation (Change in length divided by initial length)
Stress (y-axis): Pressure induced by a given strain
Yield strength: stress needed to begin causing plastic deformation (Units MPa)
Ultimate tensile strength: Maximum stress on plot (MPa)
Total Strain: Maximum strain also called elongation at failure (%)
Toughness: Area under the curve (MPa)
Provide a classification system for the different types of Bioinstrumentation and provide an example of each.
Bioelectric - Electrocardiogram
Biophysical - Sphygmomanometer
Biochemical - Glucometer, pregnancy test, etc.
Biomagnetic - MRI
Describe one instrument that we covered in class
ECG: Records the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin
How is an ultrasound image generated? What is the primary contrast mechanism used in ultrasound imaging?
Oscillating pressure wave above the limit of human hearing
Contrast in ultrasound images generated by acoustic impedance which is dependant on the density of the material(s) the sound passes through
Describe how ultrasound is being used beyond imaging applications.
Deep localized heating
Ultrasound-Mediated topical drug delivery
Localized drug delivery
Localized tumor ablation
How does PET imaging work? (describe how the gamma rays are generated and detected)
Uses radioactive tracers that are administered to patients via the bloodstream
The molecules can bind to specific parts of the body depending on what the isotope is
The isotope creates positrons which interact with nearby electrons
The PET scan observes these interactions to construct an image
What is a contrast agent and why are they used. What concerns exist with their use?
Used to enhance the visibility of internal structures
Operate by increasing the contrast causing property of a tissue in a given imaging format
People can have an allergic reaction to contrast material but this is rarely fatal as the fatality rate is only .9 per 100,000 cases in which someone has a reaction to a contrast agent
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