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SCMA Chapter 12
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Terms in this set (74)
True or false? A major challenge in inventory management is to maintain a balance between inventory investment and customer service.
True
True or false? Which item to order and with which supplier the order should be placed are the two fundamental issues in inventory management.
False
1. how inventory items can be classified
2. how accurate inventory records can be maintained
True or false? One function of inventory management is to take advantage of quantity discounts.
True
True or false? Work-in-process inventory is devoted to maintenance, repair, and operations.
False
Material flow time (T)
Throughput (D)
Littles Law (inventory= I = DxT)
True or false? ABC analysis classifies inventoried items into three groups, usually based on annual units or quantities used.
False
Class A, B, C
based on Dollar Volume of Annual Sales
(total $ sales % and total items % )
True or false? In ABC analysis, "A" Items are the most tightly controlled.
True
True or false? ABC analysis is based on the presumption that carefully controlling all items is necessary to produce important inventory savings.
False
True or false? Cycle counting is an inventory control technique exclusively used for cyclical items.
False
Cycle Counting=items are counted and records updated on a periodic basis
True or false? One advantage of cycle counting is that it maintains accurate inventory records.
True
-eliminates shutdowns and interruptions
-eliminates annual inventory adjustment
-trained audit inventory accuracy
-causes of errors identified and corrected
True or false? In cycle counting, the frequency of item counting and stock verification usually varies from item to item depending upon the item's classification.
True
True or false? Retail inventory that is unaccounted for between receipt and time of sale is known as shrinkage.
True
True or false? The demand for automobiles would be considered an independent demand.
True
True or false? Insurance and taxes on inventory are part of the costs known as setup or ordering costs.
False
True or false? If setup costs are reduced by substantial reductions in setup time, the production order quantity is also reduced.
True
total annual cost=setup cost + holding cost
True or false? The EOQ model is best suited for items whose demand is dependent on other products.
False
True or false? In the simple EOQ model, if annual demand were to increase, the EOQ would increase proportionately.
False
True or false? At the economic order quantity, holding costs are equal to purchasing costs.
False
True or false? In the simple EOQ model, if the carrying cost were to double, the EOQ would also double.
False
True or false? In the production order quantity (POQ) model, inventory does not arrive in a single moment but flows in at a steady rate, resulting in a larger lot size than in an otherwise identical EOQ problem.
True
True or false? The reorder point is the inventory level at which action is taken to replenish the stocked item.
True
True or false? In the quantity discount model, it is possible to have a cost-minimizing solution where annual ordering costs do not equal annual carrying costs.
True
True or false? In the quantity discount model, the cost of acquiring goods (product cost) is not a factor in determining lot size.
False
True or false? Service level is the complement of the probability of a stockout.
True
True or false? Units of safety stock are additions to the reorder point that allow for variability in the rate of demand, the length of lead time, or both.
True
True or false? Safety stock in inventory systems depends only on the average demand during the lead time.
False
True or false? The fixed-period inventory model can have a stockout during the review period as well as during the reorder period, which is why fixed-period models require more safety stock than fixed-quantity models.
True
Which of the following statements regarding Amazon.com is FALSE?
a. The company was opened by Jeff Bezos in 1995.
b. The company was founded as, and still is, a "virtual retailer" with no inventory.
c. The company is now a world-class leader in warehouse management and automation.
d. The company uses both United Parcel Service and the U.S. Postal Service as shippers.
e. Amazon obtains its competitive advantage through inventory management.
b. The company was founded as, and still is, a "virtual retailer" with no inventory.
Which of the following is a function of inventory?
a. to decouple or separate parts of the production process
b. to decouple the firm from fluctuations in demand and provide a stock of goods that will provide a selection for customers
c. to take advantage of quantity discounts
d. to hedge against inflation
e. All of the above are functions of inventory.
e. All of the above are functions of inventory.
Which of the following would NOT generally be a motive for a firm to hold inventories?
a. to decouple or separate parts of the production process
b. to provide a stock of goods that will provide a selection for customers
c. to take advantage of quantity discounts
d. to minimize holding costs
e. All of the above are functions of inventory.
d. to minimize holding costs
Which of the following is NOT one of the four main types of inventory?
a. raw material inventory
b. work-in-process inventory
c. maintenance/repair/operating supply inventory
d. safety stock inventory
e. All of these are main types of inventory.
d. safety stock inventory
Which of the following statements about ABC analysis is FALSE?
a. ABC analysis is based on the presumption that controlling the few most important items produces the vast majority of inventory savings.
b. In ABC analysis, "A" Items are tightly controlled, have accurate records, and receive regular review by major decision makers.
c. In ABC analysis, "C" Items have minimal records, periodic review, and simple controls.
d. ABC analysis is based on the presumption that all items must be tightly controlled to produce important cost savings.
e. All of the above statements are true.
d. ABC analysis is based on the presumption that all items must be tightly controlled to produce important cost savings.
All of the following statements about ABC analysis are true EXCEPT
a. inventory may be categorized by measures other than dollar volume
b. it categorizes on-hand inventory into three groups based on annual dollar volume
c. it is an application of the Pareto principle
d. it states that all items require the same degree of control
e. it states that there are the critical few and the trivial many inventory items
d. it states that all items require the same degree of control
ABC analysis is based on the principle that
there are usually a few critical items, and many items which are less critical
ABC analysis divides on-hand inventory into three classes, generally based upon
annual dollar volume
Cycle counting
provides a measure of inventory accuracy
Which of the following statements regarding control of service inventories is TRUE?
a. Service inventory is a fictional concept, because services are intangible.
b. Service inventory needs no safety stock, because there's no such thing as a service stockout.
c. Effective control of all goods leaving the facility is one applicable technique.
d. Service inventory has carrying costs but not setup costs.
e. All of the above are true.
c. Effective control of all goods leaving the facility is one applicable technique.
The two most basic inventory questions answered by the typical inventory model are
timing and quantity of orders
Among the advantages of cycle counting is that it
allows more rapid identification of errors and consequent remedial action than is possible with annual physical inventory
Which of the following are elements of inventory holding costs?
a. housing costs
b. material handling costs
c. investment costs
d. pilferage, scrap, and obsolescence
e. All of the above are elements of inventory holding cost.
e. All of the above are elements of inventory holding cost.
Which of the following is NOT an assumption of the economic order quantity model shown below?
a. Demand is known, constant, and independent.
b. Lead time is known and constant.
c. Quantity discounts are not possible.
d. Production and use can occur simultaneously.
e. The only variable costs are setup cost and holding (or carrying) cost.
d. Production and use can occur simultaneously.
The primary purpose of the basic economic order quantity model shown below is
a. to calculate the reorder point, so that replenishments take place at the proper time
b. to minimize the sum of carrying cost and holding cost
c. to maximize the customer service level
d. to minimize the sum of setup cost and holding cost
e. to calculate the optimum safety stock
d. to minimize the sum of setup cost and holding cost
If the actual order quantity is the economic order quantity in a problem that meets the assumption of the economic order quantity model shown below, the average amount of inventory on hand
is one-half of the economic order quantity
A certain type of computer costs $1,000, and the annual holding cost is 25%. Annual demand is 10,000 units, and the order cost is $150 per order. What is the approximate economic order quantity?
110
Most inventory models attempt to minimize
total inventory based costs
In the basic EOQ model, if the cost of placing an order doubles, and all other values remain constant, the EOQ will
increase by about 41%
In the basic EOQ model, if D=6000 per year, S=$100, H=$5 per unit per month, the economic order quantity is approximately
141
Which of the following statements about the basic EOQ model is TRUE?
a. If the ordering cost were to double, the EOQ would rise.
b. If the annual demand were to double, the EOQ would increase.
c. If the carrying cost were to increase, the EOQ would fall.
d. If annual demand were to double, the number of orders per year would increase.
e. All of the above statements are true.
e. All of the above statements are true.
Which of the following statements about the basic EOQ model is FALSE?
a. If the setup cost were to decrease, the EOQ would fall.
b. If annual demand were to increase, the EOQ would increase.
c. If the ordering cost were to increase, the EOQ would rise.
d. If annual demand were to double, the EOQ would also double.
e. All of the above statements are true.
d. If annual demand were to double, the EOQ would also double.
A product whose EOQ is 40 experiences a decrease in ordering cost from $90 per order to $10. The revised EOQ is
one-third as large
A product whose EOQ is 400 experiences a 50% increase in demand. The new EOQ is
increased by less than 50%
For a certain item, the cost-minimizing order quantity obtained with the basic EOQ model was 200 units and the total annual inventory (carrying and setup) cost was $600. The inventory carrying cost per unit per year for this item is
$3.00
A product has demand of 4000 units per year. Ordering cost is $20 and holding cost is $4 per unit per year. The EOQ model is appropriate. The cost-minimizing solution for this product will cost _______ per year in total annual inventory costs.
$800
Which of the following statements regarding the reorder point is TRUE?
a. The reorder point is that quantity that triggers an action to restock an item.
b. There is a reorder point even if lead time and demand during lead time are constant.
c. The reorder point is larger than d x L if safety stock is present.
d. The fixed-period model has no reorder point.
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
The EOQ model with quantity discounts attempts to determine
how many units should be ordered
An inventory decision rule states "when the inventory level goes down to 14 gearboxes, 100 gearboxes will be ordered." Which of the following statements is true?
a. One hundred is the reorder point, and 14 is the order quantity.
b. Fourteen is the reorder point, and 100 is the order quantity.
c. The number 100 is a function of demand during lead time.
d. Fourteen is the safety stock, and 100 is the reorder point.
e. None of the above is true.
b. Fourteen is the reorder point, and 100 is the order quantity.
Which of the following statements regarding the production order quantity model is TRUE?
a. It applies only to items produced in the firm's own production departments.
b. It relaxes the assumption that all the order quantity is received at one time.
c. It relaxes the assumption that the demand rate is constant.
d. It minimizes the total production costs.
e. It minimizes inventory.
b. It relaxes the assumption that all the order quantity is received at one time.
Which of these statements about the production order quantity model is FALSE?
a. The production order quantity model is appropriate when the assumptions of the basic EOQ model are met, except that receipt is non instantaneous.
b. Because receipt is non instantaneous, some units are used immediately, not stored in inventory.
c. Average inventory is less than one-half of the production order quantity.
d. All else equal, the smaller the ratio of demand rate to production rate, the larger is the production order quantity.
e. None of the above is false.
d. All else equal, the smaller the ratio of demand rate to production rate, the larger the production order quantity.
The assumptions of the production order quantity model are met in a situation where annual demand is 3650 units, setup cost is $50, holding cost is $12 per unit per year, the daily demand rate is 10 and the daily production rate is 100. The production order quantity for this problem is approximately
184
A production order quantity problem has daily demand rate=10 and daily production rate=50. The production order quantity for this problem is approximately 612 units. The average inventory for this problem is approximately
245
Which category of inventory holding costs is much higher than average for rapid-change industries such as PCs and cell phones?
pilferage, scrap, and obsolescence
When quantity discounts are allowed, the cost-minimizing order quantity
minimizes the sum of holding, ordering, and product costs
Which of the following statements about quantity discounts is FALSE?
a. The cost-minimizing solution may or may not be where annual holding costs equal annual ordering costs.
b. In inventory management, item cost becomes relevant to inventory decisions only when a quantity discount is available.
c. If carrying costs are expressed as a percentage of value, EOQ is larger at each lower price in the discount schedule.
d. The larger annual demand, the less attractive a discount schedule will be.
e. The smaller the ordering cost, the less attractive a discount schedule will be.
d. The larger annual demand, the less attractive a discount schedule will be.
If the standard deviation of demand is six per week, demand is 50 per week, and the desired service level is 95%, approximately what is the statistical safety stock?
cannot be determined without lead time data
A specific product has demand during lead time of 100 units, with a standard deviation of 25 units. What safety stock (approximately) provides a 95% service level?
41
Demand for dishwasher water pumps is 8 per day. The standard deviation of demand is 3 per day, and the order lead time is four days. The service level is 95%. What should the reorder point be?
more than 40
The purpose of safety stock is to
control the likelihood of a stockout due to the variability of demand during lead time
The proper quantity of safety stock is typically determined by
setting the level of safety stock so that a given stockout risk is not exceeded
If demand is not uniform and constant, then stockout risks can be controlled by
adding safety stock
If daily demand is normally distributed with a mean of 15 and standard deviation of 5, and lead time is constant at 4 days, 90 percent service level will require safety stock of approximately
13 units
If daily demand is constant at 10 units per day, and lead time averages 12 days with a standard deviation of 3 days, 95 percent service requires a safety stock of approximately
49 units
In a safety stock problem where both demand and lead time are variable, demand averages 150 units per day with a daily standard deviation of 16, and lead time averages 5 days with a standard deviation of 1 day. The standard deviation of demand during lead time is approximately
154 units
The fixed-period inventory model requires more safety stock than the fixed-quantity models because
a stockout can occur during the review period as well as during the lead time
A disadvantage of the fixed-period inventory system is that
since there is no count of inventory during the review period, a stockout is possible
An advantage of the fixed-period inventory system is that
there is no physical count of inventory items when an item is withdrawn
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