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Terms in this set (37)
decomposers (heterotrophic bacteria and fungi) feed and process organic material and return nutrients in inorganic form. Turns dead algae, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus into inorganic material like NOx and POx. They conduct Cellular Respiration like everyone else
carbon constantly moves from air to plants plants to air, air to plants to animals to air
growing plants requires a lot of CO2
carbon is trapped in living bodies and released when decomposers consume corpses which produces CO2
a forest, ocean, or other natural environment viewed in terms of its ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
a complex model of interconnected food chains where there are multiple links among species.
a linear depiction of energy flow among organisms.
a simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates. Produced by photosynthesis
describes the system formed by the interaction between a community of organisms and its physical environment.
the abundance of organisms, biomass (available energy) at each trophic level expressed graphically
pyramid of numbers
pyramid of biomass
pyramid of energy
it FLOWS! and is released as THERMAL energy.
he total mass of organisms in a given area or volume.
Releases more carbon into the atmosphere than it takes in
solid, liquid, or gas fuel made from
recently-dead biological matter, usually plants.
The increase of concentration of a toxin as it passes through successive levels of the food web. The toxin/ contaminant is magnified across the food chain.
accumulation of a toxin or contaminant in an organism. This toxin or contaminant is stored faster than is broken down.
A processes wherein fresh water nutrient runoff leads to the increase in algae. When the algae dies and sinks to the salt water area there is an increase in decomposers as the demand for decomposing the large amounts of algae increases. The decomposers require oxygen to do their thing and so they make use of all the supply leaving the rest of the organisms with no oxygen and so these organisms end up dying.
life history traits
the population size of the species the environment can handle indefinitely, given the available resource in that environment.
r and K selection
K selected species tend to have fewer babies-fewer babies live longer-you have reached the carrying capacity of the population
r selected species have more babies -most of them die early-population can be viewed as growing exponentially
A survivorship curve is a graph showing the number or proportion of individuals surviving to each age for a given species or group
population growth model that assumes resources are limiting resulting in limits to growth and eventual stable population sizes. In laboratory cultures of bacteria and such, the logistic growth model works well; however, in the real world where there are frequent changes in carrying capacities due to temperature, rainfall and such other variations, this model does not work well. But this model is useful at modeling how populations grow.
Population increase under ideal conditions, when r > 0. Forms a J-shaped curve.
the effect of the factors depends on the density of the population. Predator will ignore rare prey and go after the more common prey.
mortality factor whose influence is not affected by changes in population size or density
Graph: flat line will result when you plot mortality against density. These factors are physical: weather, drought, freezes, floods, and fire. Birds are killed in freezes-their population size don't matter.
Breakup of a habitat into smaller pieces, usually as a result of human activities.
AND the various terms that represent what to consider when designing a reserve
the complexity of an ecological community or ecosystem, which includes genetic variation within species,
the variety of species in an
area, and the variety of habitat types within a landscape.
measurement of species richness combined with evenness, takes into account how many species are present but also how evenly distributed the number of each species are.
an interaction that affects both species negatively, as both species compete for food or other resources.
one-sided interaction, where it is detrimental to one species and neutral to the other.
an interaction where both species benefit.
benefits one species and is neutral to the other
a predator feeds on prey and causes their rapid death. Results in death of prey.
An animal feeds on a plant. Involves non-lethal feeding on plants.
A parasite establishes a relatively long-term relationship with its host, which may or may not lead to the host's death. It is typically non-lethal, the adult parasite typically lives and reproduces for long periods in or on its host.
an organism lays eggs in a host and the resulting larvae remain in the host and usually kill it. They lay eggs in a host and the resulting larvae remain and almost always kill. Are closely related to predators in their lethality and parasites in their longevity (lay eggs and then they hatch).
think: ant death video and cricket death (chirpping)