52 terms

Work Design Exam 4 (Topic 4 & 5)

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Objectives of time study
1. Establish time standards
2. Divide operation into elements.
3. Avoid clerical errors.
Fair Day's Work
Amount of work that can be produced by qualified employees working at standard pace and effective utilization.
Qualified Employee
Fully trained.
Satisfactorily performs work.
In accordance with the requirements.
Standard Pace
Effective rate of performance.
Not fast nor slow.
Consideration to physics, mental, and visual requirements of the job.
Equipment for time study.
Chronometer
Video Camera
Form
Operation's Flow Chart
What does the analyst do?
1. Collect data.
2. Ensure correct method.
3. Accurately record times.
4. Honest evaluation of the operator.
5. No operator criticism.
What does the operator do?
1. Cooperates with study.
2. Establishes ideal methods.
3. Break job into elements.
4. Work at normal pace.
5. Use exact method prescribed.
Chronometration
1. Observe operations as many times as needed.
2. Notice cycles.
3. Define elements.
4. Take times.
5. Record times onto form.
6. Compute averages and std. dev.
Two methods of chronometration?
Continious

Snapback
Continious chronometration.
No stop until operation is finished or enough cycles are computed.
-Good for short cycles.
- Better for operation b/c no stops.
Snapback chronometration.
Time back to 0 every time a cycle is finished.
-Good for long cycles.
-Breaks are not recorded.
How are observations assumed to be distributed?
Normal distribution.
Unknown population mean.
Usual size of time studies.
Small samples (n<30).
t - distribution.
Rating operator performance.
To adjust the mean observed time (OT) to normal time (NT).

Adjust upward the time for good operator.

Adjust downward time for bad operator.
Rating short-cycle repetitive work
One rating for the entire study.
Rating long-cycle diversified work.
Evaluate performance for each element.
Types of allowances.
1. Personal Needs.
2. Basic Fatigue.
Personal needs allowance.
5% or 24 minutes/8 hours.
Basic fatigue allowance.
4%.
Constant allowance.
5% (basic) + 4% (fatigue) = 9%.
Efficacy
Getting things done.
THE WHAT
Efficiency
Doing things right.
THE HOW.
EFFECTIVENESS
Getting things done right.
THE WHAT AND HOW.
Frank & Lillian Gilbreth
Pioneers in study of manual motion.
All work: 17 basic motions (Therbligs)
What are Therbligs
17 basic motions.
Can be effective or ineffective.
Effective Therbligs
Directly advance progress.
Can be shortened.
Cannot be eliminated.
Ineffective Therbligs
Do not advance progress,
Should be eliminated.
Two Handed Process Chart.
Shows all movements and delays made by left and right hands at the same time.

In order to analyze and improve.

Dimensions of workstation needed.

Times are needed.
Predetermined time systems.
Used to predict standard times.
Groups of Predetermined Time Systems.
1. Acceleration - deceleration.
2. Average - motion systems.
3. Additive systems.
Acceleration-deceleration systems.
Different body motions move at different speeds.

40% on acceleration.
20% constant speed.
40% on deceleration.
Average - motion systems.
Represent average motion difficulties in industrial operations.
Additive - systems.
Basic time values are used.
Times for motion difficulties re added to basic values.
Range from 10% to 50%.
What is MTM
Methods-Time Measurement
MTM
Analyzes manual operation, assigns pre-determined time standard.
What does the MTM give values for?
The fundamental motions:
1. Reach.
2. Move.
3. Turn.
4. Grasp.
5. Position.
6. Disengage.
7. Release.
What is TMU?
Time-Measurement Unit.
TMU conversion.
1 TMU = 0.00001 hours.
1 hour = 100,000 TMU
Organizational Change
Structural changes suffered by the internal or external environment of an organization.
Why does org. change exist?
To adapt to changes of the presses and the future they will face.
Examples of external causes of org change?
Technology
Market
Competition
Legislation
Internal causes of org change
Profitability
Quality
Performance
Strategy
What is resistance?
Ability to not be affected by something, specially adversity.
What is change resistance?
Opposition to adopt change to daily life.
Process of change resistance?
Denial
Anger
Acceptance
Adaptation
Why does org change resistance exist?
Fear
Uncertainty
Perception
Habits
Personality
Explicit resistance
Strike
Less productivity
More errors
Bad work environment
Implicit resistance
Resignation
delays
absenteeism
Pyramid of change resistance
Not wanting
Can not
Not knowing
How to fight resistance change?
Leadership & commitment
Communication
Participation
Support & negotiation
Execution
What is a paradigm
Typical pattern of something.
Kodac Case
1975 - first digital prototype camera.
1990's - 70% share (#18)
1996 - first digital camera
from 1975 (90%) to 2012 broke.