Pysch Disorders

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Terms in this set (...)

Physiological disorders
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors
Distress
a subjective feeling that something is really wrong
Dysfunction
when a person's ability to work and live is clearly often measurably impaired
Obsessive compulsive disorders
characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts, which become obsessions. Sometimes accompanied by actions which become compulsions
Generalized anxiety disorders
continually tense and apprehensive, experiencing unfocused, negative, and out-of-control feelings
Panic attacks
sudden episodes of intense dread or sudden fear that come without warning
Phobias
persistent, irrational fears of specific objects, activities, or situations
Social anxiety disorder
characterized by anxiety related to interacting or being seen by other
Mania
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive widely optimistic state
Mood disorders
characterized by emotional extremes and challenges in regular mood
Bipolar disorder
a mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
Post-traumatic growth
the positive psychological changes resulting from the struggle with challenging circumstances and life crisis
Addiction
compulsive, excessive, and difficult-to-control substance use or other, initially pleasurable behavior that begins to interfere with ordinary life, work, health, or relationships
Physical dependence
a physiological need for a drug, that reveals itself through unpleasant withdrawal symptoms if the use stops or reduce
Psychological dependence
a psychological need to use drug, or complete an activity to relive negative emotions
Anxiety disorders
psychological disorders characterized by distressing persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders
characterized by disorganized thinking; emotions and behaviors that are often incongruent with their situations; and disturbed perceptions, including delusions and hallucinations
Dopamine
influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion
Dissociative disorder
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
Dissociative amnesia
when a person may block out specific information or have no memory of a particular event
Dissociative fatigue
during which a person may suddenly just self out on a journey for hours or months, and travel around with no awareness of their identity
Dissociative identity disorder
when a person exhibits more than one distinct and alternating personality
Ego-dystonic
those who have them are aware they have a problem and tend be distressed by their symptoms
Ego-syntonic
the person experiencing them doesn't necessarily think they have a problem
Personality disorders
psychological disorders marked by inflexible, disruptive, and enduring behavior patterns that impair social and other functioning
Borderline personality disorder
a complicated set of learned behaviors and emotional responses to traumatic or neglectful environments, particularly in childhood
Impairment in fear conditioning
lower-than-normal response to things that typically startle or frighten children, like loud and unpleasant noises
Psychotherapy
involves a therapist using a range of techniques to help a patient overcome troubles, gain insight, and achieve personal growth
Behavior therapy
therapy that aims to change behavior in order to change emotions and moods
Counter conditioning
a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors
Aversive conditioning
involves pairing an unpleasant stimulus with the targeted behavior
Exposure therapies
treat anxiety by having a person face their fears by exposing them to real or imagined situations that they typically avoid
Systematic desensitization
a type of exposure therapy that associates a relaxed state of mind with gradually increasing anxiety-inducing stimuli
Group therapy
therapy conductor with groups rather than individuals, permitting therapeutic benefits from group interaction
Family therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behavior as influenced by, or directed at, other family members
Treatment outcome research
a way of systematically measuring which therapies work best for which problems
Effectiveness
whether or not a give, therapy works in a "real world setting"
Efficacy
whether a therapy works better than some other, comparable intervention or a control
Biomedical therapies
aim to physiologically change the brain's electrochemical state with psychotropic drugs, magnetic impulses, or even electrical currents or surgery
Electroconvulsive therapy
involves sending a brief electrical current through the brain of an anesthetized patient
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
involves the painless application of repeated electromagnetic pulses
Deep-brain stimulation
calls for surgically implanting a sort of "Brain's pacemaker" that sends out electrical impulses to specific parts of the brains
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