AP U.S. Government and Politics: Monster Vocabulary Review
Terms in this set (56)
A form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states.
Federal grants to the states and local communities that are for general use in a broad area, such as community development.
Grants made for specific purposes, with strict regulations on the ways to receive and spend the funds.
Federal laws that require states to meet certain regulatory standards, but provide no money to help the states comply. Congress enacted a law in 1995 to curtail the practice.
An effort to shift responsibility of domestic programs to the states in order to decrease the size and activities of the federal government
The factors that determine voting behavior such as family, religion, and ethnic background.
The widely shared beliefs, values, and norms citizens hold about their relationship to government and to one another.
The citizens' belief that working through the government can achieve real change.
Refers to the regular pattern by which women are more likely to support Democratic candidates; women tend to be significantly less conservative than men and are more likely to support spending on social services and to oppose higher levels of military spending.
An electoral system in which one winner, with a plurality of the votes (the most votes).
The process in which state legislatures create congressional districts, many of which are oddly shaped and favor the political party in power in the state making the changes.
An election that signals a party realignment through voter polarization around new issues.
Marks a period when a significant number of voters choose to no longer support a particular political party
When the President is from one party and Congress is controlled by the opposite party.
Form of the direct primary in which citizens of any party can vote
Form of the direct primary in which only declared party members may vote
Locally held meeting in a state to select delegates who, in turn, will nominate candidates to political offices. OR
An association of congressional members who advocate a political ideology, regional, ethnic, or economic interest.
An election in which voters are choosing between candidates to elect to office.
An election held midway between presidential elections.
They raise money from the special interest constituents and make contributions to political campaigns on behalf of the special interest group.
An independent-expenditure only committee that allows unlimited contributions.
A group (party or PAC) or individual that can spend unlimited amounts in campaigns for or against candidates as long as they are separate from the candidates.
Horse race journalism
When the media focuses on who is ahead and by how much rather than on substantive differences between candidates.
The three-way alliance among legislators, bureaucrats, and interests groups to make or preserve policies that benefit their respective interests.
A group of people joined together by common philosophies and common approaches with the aim of getting candidates elected in order to develop and implement public policy. It is characterized by an organization that is responsible to the electorate and has a role in government.
The extent t which liberals and conservatives occupy the more extreme poositions on the liberal-conservative ideological spectrum.
An organization of people sharing a common interest or goal that seeks to influence the making of public policy.
A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.
Trying to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches.
Powers which are granted to, and exercised ONLY by the national government. The delegated powers are specifically listed in the U.S. Constitution at Articles I, II, III; also known as Delegated Powers.
Powers of the national government that flow from its enumerated powers and the "Elastic Clause" of the Constitution.
Privilege of sending certain matter through the public mails without payment
The practice of legislators obtaining funds through legislation that favors their home districts.
A procedural practice in the Senate whereby a senator refuses to relinquish the floor and thereby delays proceedings and prevents a vote on a controversial issue
Motion for cloture
Procedure that may be used to limit or end floor debate in a legislative body; requires a three-fifths vote of the Senate.
Assistance given to constituents by congressional members, answering questions or doing favors.
Power used by Congress to gather information useful for the formation of legislation, review the operations and budgets of executive departments and independent regulatory agencies, conduct investigations through committee hearings, and bring to the public's attention the need for public policy.
When the current holder of a political office runs for re-election.
The exchange of political favors for support of a bill.
Powers that the federal government needs to make and execute the laws; not specifically listed, but essential for using the powers granted in the Constitution.
White House staff
Managed by the White House Chief of Staff, who directly advises the president on a daily basis, it includes the more than 600 people who work at the White House, from the chef to the advance people who make travel arrangements. The key staff departments include the political offices of the Office of Communications, Legislative Affairs, Political Affairs, and Intergovernmental Affairs. It includes the support services of Scheduling, Personnel, and Secret Service and the policy offices of the National Security Affairs, Domestic Policy Affairs, and cabinet secretaries.
A rule or regulation issued by a president that has the force of law
A veto exercised by the president after Congress has adjourned; if the president takes no action for ten days, the bill does not become law and is not returned to Congress for a possible override.
Lame duck period
A defeated office holder after that person has lost their reelection, but is still in office until the newly elected official is sworn in.
Friend of the court; interested groups may be invited to file legal briefs supporting or rejecting arguments of the case.
Latin for judicial precedent, this concept originated in England in the twelfth century when judges settled disputes based on custom and tradition.
Authority given to the courts to review the constitutionality of acts by the executive, the legislature, or the states; established in Marbury v. Madison.
A philosophy of judicial decision-making that argues judges should use their power broadly to further justice, especially in the areas of equality and personal liberty.
Writ of certiorari
Latin for "to be made more certain," the process in which the Supreme Court accepts written briefs on appeal based on the "rule of four" justices voting to hear the case.
Using the court system and process to enact policy
Uncontrollable spending/Mandatory spending
Federal spending required by law that continues without the need for annual approvals by Congress.
Government benefits that certain qualified individuals are entitled to by law, regardless of need.
Government's attempt to control the rate of growth of the money supply
The use of taxes, government spending, and government borrowing
The selective application of the protections of the federal Bill of Rights to the states.
Supreme Court Cases:
Gitlow v. New York (1925)
The right to vote
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