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Cognitive Psychology Final Exam
Terms in this set (31)
going beyond the information given to comprehend a situation (deriving conceptual relations from those entertained at the moment)
includes a set of operations, set of facts and a set of inferential schemas
valid deductive argument
a conclusion that must follow necessarily from the premise (no other possibility)
the Wason task
a task in which there are 4 cards displaying E, 3, 2, and a J. given the hypothesis that if a card has a vowel on one side it has an even/odd number on the other. People are more likely to pick the E and 3 card
an argument that is called but the conclusion does not add meaning to the argument.
ex. i will go to the movies or Jackie o's
i will not go to the movies
therefore i will go to jackie o's and black holes don't exist.
a model in human reasoning saying that it is how we ought to reason and not how we actually reason (it falls short)
a conclusion that follows with a degree of certainty and probability
a conclusion in which it follows necessarily form the premise
givens, rules (transferable), constraints (limits), and goal (the ultimate situation)
the components of problem space by Simon and Newall?
when you use objects for what they are intended for (you want to defeat this and when you do you have reached to key to creativity)
kohler the chimp test
overall finding of this study was insight.
placed a chimp in a cage and hung bananas from the ceiling. chimp came in hungry there was a steak blocked off, the goal was to get the chimp to throw a stick at it finally had insight and figured it out
hill climbing (simon and newall)
it is to minimize the distance between any one state and goal state. (people will transform their current state into another if it is consistent with minimizing the distance between initial state and goal state)
well defined problems
problems that are completely defined with initial conditions, goals, and transfer motions
ill defined problems
problems in which it is how to complete your degree faster
study in which you were given matches, a box with tacks that are too small to go through a candle, and a candle.
task is to attach the candle to a wall.
have to overcome functional fixedness. (attach box to wall with tacks and put candle in it)
normative decision making theory
how humans ought to behave
descriptive decision making theory
how a human actually behaves
transitivity of choice
preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option x to y and y to z must prefer x to z. ex. team a beat b, b beats c so a beats c.
not necessarily true for situations in the real world. Depends on the context and time.
arguments against transitive of choice
law of contradiction
states that contradictory statements cannot both be true in the same sense at the same time, so apple over banana but bananas over grapes.
structure mapping theory of analogy
this theory recognizes that there can be differences between base and target domains which make no difference to the strength of the analogy.
it is concerned with behavior of decision makers who face a choice between two alternatives. a value is assigned to gains and losses rather than to final assets; also probabilities are replaced by decision weights.
derived from an individual's personal judgment about whether a specific outcome is likely to occur
when you prefer the alternative reward because it is a reward that is more likely to happen. (you get $100 dollars today, you get $180 sometime)
who won the nobel price in economics?
Preferences of sequences outcomes by lewenstein and prelim 1993
studied how people choice changes with time frame of choice because we want valuable outcomes sooner than later. people prefer outcomes to get better over time
is a decision-making strategy or cognitive heuristic that entails searching through the available alternatives until an acceptability threshold is met.
is the idea that when individuals make decisions, their rationality is limited by the tractability of the decision problem, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the time available to make the decision. (people seldom make perfect decisions)
expected utility, Bernoulli
concerning people's preferences with regard to choices that have uncertain outcomes (gambles)
expected value theory
is the sum of the value of each potential outcome multiplied by the probability of that outcome occurring. It is useful for choosing between two options.
deals with whether or not you believe in God. and according to the expected value of these utilities the decision is that good exists with +infinity.
Recommended textbook explanations
Principles of Economics
N. Gregory Mankiw
Solutions Manual for Use with Essentials of Investments
Alan J. Marcus, Alex Kane, Bruce Swensen, Zvi Bodie
Principles of Macroeconomics
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Principles of Microeconomics
N. Gregory Mankiw
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