114 terms

Apologia Biology 2nd ed. vocab: Modules 5, 6, 7, and 8 (Review for Quarterly Exam Two)

Vocabulary for modules 5-8 from Apologia Biology, 2nd ed., by Dr. Jay Wile. This covers all the definitions for the second quarter of the book. If you're like me, reviewing for the quarterly is really overwhelming! Here's a method I used that really helped. 1) Go through the "Learn" mode of Module 5 2) This time change the settings so that you are given the term and asked to type the definition. This is opposite to the default setting, and it's a LOT harder... but it really helps! 3) Take the te…
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matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
model
an explanation or representation of something that cannot be seen
element
a collection of atoms that all have the same number of protons
molecules
chemicals that result from atoms linking together
physical change
a change that affects the appearance but not the chemical makeup of a substance
chemical change
a change that alters the makeup of the elements or molecules of a substance
phase
one of three forms - solid, liquid, or gas - which every substance is capable of attaining
diffusion
the random motion of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
semipermeable membrane
a membrane that allows some molecules to pass through but does not allow other molecules to pass through
osmosis
the tendency of a solvent to travel across a semipermeable membrane into areas of higher solute concentration
catalyst
a substance that alters the speed of a chemical reaction but is not used up in the process
organic molecule
a molecule that contains only carbon and any of the following: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and/or phosphorous
biosynthesis
the process by which living organisms produce larger molecules from smaller ones
isomers
two different molecules that have the same chemical formula
monosacharides
simple carbohydrates that contain 3 to 10 carbon atoms
disaccharides
carbohydrates that are made up of two monosaccharides
polysaccharides
carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
dehydration reaction
a chemical reaction in which molecules combine by removing water
hydrolysis
breaking down complex molecules by the chemical addition of water
hydrophobic
lacking any affinity to water
saturated fat
a lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms
unsaturated fat
a lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms
peptide bond
a bond that links amino acids together in a protein
hydrogen bond
a strong attraction between hydrogen atoms and certain other atoms (usually oxygen or nitrogen) in specific molecules
concentration
a measurement of how much solute exists within a certain volume of solvent
absorption
the transport of dissolved substances into cells
digestion
the breakdown of absorbed substances
respiration
the breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy
excretion
the removal of soluble waste materials
egestion
the removal of nonsoluble waste materials
secretion
the release of biosynthesized substances
homeostasis
maintaining the status quo
reproduction
producing more cells
cytology
the study of cells
cell wall
a rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells
middle lamella
the thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells
plasma membrane
the semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings
cytoplasm
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
ions
substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons
cytoplasmic streaming
the motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents
mitochondria
the organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy
lysosome
the organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids
ribosomes
non-membrane-bound organelles responsible for protein synthesis
endoplasmic reticulum
an organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within a cell
rough ER
ER that is dotted with ribosomes
smooth ER
ER that has no ribosomes
golgi bodies
the organelles in which proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell
leucoplasts
organelles that store starches or oils
chromoplasts
organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis
central vacuole
a large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes
waste vacuoles
vacuoles that contain the waste products of digestion
phagocytosis
the process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells
phagocytic vacuole
a vacuole that holds the matter which a cell engulfs
pinocytic vesicle
vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules
secretion vesicle
vesicle that holds secretion products so that they can be transported to the plasma membrane and released
microtubules
spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike structure
nuclear membrane
a highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
chromatin
clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell
cytoskeleton
a network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement
microfilaments
fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton
intermediate filaments
threadlike proteins in the cell's cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments
phospholipid
a lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule that contains a phosphate group
passive transport
movement of molecules through the plasma membrane according to the dictates of osmosis or diffusion
active transport
movement of molecules through the plasma membrane (typically opposite the dictates of osmosis or diffusion) aided by a process that requires energy
isotonic solution
a solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell that resides in the solution
hypertonic solution
a solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution
plasmolysis
collapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm due to a lack of water
cytolysis
the rupturing of a cell due to excess internal pressure
hypotonic solution
a solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell which resides in the solution
activation energy
energy necessary to get a chemical reaction going
genetics
the science that studies how characteristics get passed from parent to offspring
genetic factors
the general guideline of traits determined by a person's DNA
environmental factors
those "nonbiological" factors that are involved in a person's surroundings such as the nature of the person's parents, the person's friends, and the person's behavioral choices
spiritual factors
the factors in a person's life that are determined by the quality of his or her relationship with God
gene
a section of DNA that codes for the production of a protein or a portion of protein, thereby causing a trait
messenger RNA
the RNA that performs transcription
anticodon
a three-nucleotide base sequence on tRNA
codon
a sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that refers to a specific type of amino acid
chromosome
DNA coiled around and supported by proteins, found in the nucleus of the cell
mitosis
a process of asexual reproduction in eukaryotic cells
interphase
the time interval between cellular reproduction
centromere
the region that joins two sister chromatids
mother cell
a cell ready to begin reproduction, containing duplicated DNA and centrioles
karyotype
the figure produced when the chromosomes of a species during metaphase are arranged according to their homologous pairs
diploid cell
a cell with chromosomes that come in homologous pairs
haploid cell
a cell that has only one representative of each chromosome pair
diploid number (2n)
the total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell
haploid number (n)
the number of homologous pairs in a diploid cell
meiosis
the process by which a diploid (2n) cell forms gametes (n)
gametes
haploid cells (n) produced by diploid cells (2n) for the purpose of sexual reproduction
virus
A non-cellular infectious agent that has two characteristics:

1) Has genetic material (RNA or DNA) inside a protective protein coat

2) Cannot reproduce on its own
antibodies
specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents
vaccine
a weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates the body's production of antibodies which can aid in destroying the pathogen
true breeding
if an organism has a certain characteristic that is always passed on to its offspring, we say that this organism bred true with respect to that characteristic
allele
one of a pair of genes that occupies the same position on homologous chromosomes
genotype
a two-letter set that represents the alleles an organism possesses for a certain trait
phenotype
the observable expression of an organism's genes
homozygous genotype
a genotype in which both alleles are identical
heterozygous genotype
a genotype with two different alleles
dominant allele
an allele that will determine the phenotype if just one is present in the genotype
recessive allele
an allele that will not determine the phenotype unless the genotype is homozygous
Mendel's Principles of Genetics Using Updated Terminology
1) The traits of an organism are determined by its genes.

2) Each organism has two alleles that make up the genotype for a given trait.

3) In sexual reproduction, each parent contributes ONLY ONE of its alleles to the offspring

4) In each genotype, there is a dominant allele. If it exists in an organism, the phenotype is determined by that allele.
pedigree
a diagram that follows a particular phenotype through several generations
monohybrid cross
a cross between two individuals, concentrating on only one definable trait
dihybrid cross
a cross between two individuals, concentrating on two definable traits
autosomes
chromosomes that do not determine the sex of an individual
sex chromosomes
chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
antigen
a protein that, when introduced in the blood, triggers the production of an antibody
autosomal inheritance
inheritance of a genetic trait not on a sex chromosome
genetic disease carrier
a person who is heterozygous in a recessive genetic disorder
sex-linked inheritance
inheritance of a genetic trait located on a sex chromosome
mutation
a radical chemical change in one or more alleles
change in chromosome structure
a situation in which a chromosome loses or gains genes during meiosis
change in chromosome number
a situation in which abnormal cellular events in meiosis lead to either none of a particular chromosome in the gamete or more than one chromosome in the gamete