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Terms in this set (94)
A reform movement in early 20th century focused on using the government to improve social, moral, and equity issues in society that were exposed, created, or exacerbated by industrialization (and urbanization).
Why did progressivism happen now?
domesticity for women
industrialization in full swing (not at the very start, so they could recognize the problems fully)
college-educated people want reform
social gospel movement (late 1800s when churches said must worship AND do service
advances in communication (more awareness and organization)
How did Roosevelt show support for workers as opposed to employers?
When coal miners were on strike in PA looking for higher wages, 8 hour workday, and union recognition he forced the employers to comply with at least some of their demands, and then go back to work because winter was approaching. No previous president had ever treated a union equal to the employers!
a coalition of people identified with a particular cause, such as an industry or occupational group, a social group, or a policy objective
What technologies facilitated formation of new organizations that were very widespread?
railroad, telegraph, and telephone
What group of young people created associations for reform?
What three things qualify a progressive?
1) emergence of new concepts of the purposes and functions of government
2) changes in government policies and institutions
3) the political agitation that produced these changes
Political party formed in 1912 with Theodore Roosevelt as its candidate for president. Not all the progressives joined the progressive party
regulation of business, moral revival, consumer protection, conservation of natural resources, educational improvement, tax reform, etc .
In what way did government change in America?
govn't was brought more directly into the economy and went more directly into the lives of most Americans
Community center operated by resident social reformers in a poor urban neighborhood
What was the Hull House?
A very well-known/iconic settlement house in Chicago founded by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. Services it provided to neighborhood families: nursery, childcare, classes for mothers, playground, gymnasium, adult education classes. Activists from Hull House lobbied state legislatures for cleaner streets, ending child labor, health/safety regulations for workplace, education laws
Views that settlement house workers had on class and the ever-present differences in the city between wealth and poverty
wanted to minimize class conflict b/c believed all the classes are interdependent. Tried to bridge gap between classes by preaching middle-class values to poor and getting the rich to donate to the poor.
New profession that was dominated by women:
social work- esp. settlement houses
reform movement led by Protestants who advocated for Christians to do community service to relieve urban problems and help the poor, rather than just going to Church and not putting what they learned there to use.
independence for women (feminism); not just accepting the typical roles for women at the time- branch outside domesticity. That is why community service/settlement houses became so popular for women- something independent/ non-domestic they could do, but was still socially acceptable.
National Birth Control League
created to try to repeal laws that prohibited the distribution of info about contraception
nurse who defied the law and informed women about birth control
National Consumers' League and Women's Trade Union League
worked to improve lives of working women
Triangle Shirtwaist Company
clothing factory that burnt down and many women workers were burned inside b/c there weren't fire escapes/exits. Led to a new safety law for workplaces
Muller V. Oregon
Supreme court limited working hours for women. Feminists viewed it as a victory, but kind of contradictory b/c it is almost implying that women are too weak to work for as long as men, and it gives them even less equality.
First woman elected to House of Representatives
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
led by Carrie Chapman Catt and Anna Howard Shaw: national organization to work for women's suffrage. It led to a major movement.
campaign to outlaw alcohol: many thought it was immoral, and there were many problems with it: STDs, prostitution, aggression, crime, accidents at work
interest group advocating prohibition; led by churches. Argued that alcohol not only corrupted individuals, but also politics b/c saloons were where politicians made illegal deals with voters
Opponents to Prohibition
immigrants b/c it's part of their culture; alcohol-producing companies
Ray Stannard Baker
White progressive who advocated for racial equality . Wrote "Following the Color Line"
W.E.B. Du Bois
Challenged Booker T. Washington; wanted racial equality right now, and wanted blacks to fight for equal rights until they got them. Wrote "Souls of Black Folk."
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Blacks created this organization in order to fight for racial equality.
Ida B. Wells
fought for an end to lynching by speaking and righting about it. She was initially a supporter of the NAACP but then decided it was too cautious.
Socialist Party of America (SPA)
Political party committed to socialism (government ownership of most industries); hated capitalism. Wanted workers and farmers to control the means of production. Attracted immigrants, trade unions, reformers, intellectuals (Du Bois, Margaret Sanger, Upton Sinclair). Socialists won some votes in House of Reps and mayors, but most didn't want to end private property or capitalism.
created American Railroad Union and was leader of socialists.
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW; Wobblies)
Radical workers' organization to unite all unskilled and semiskilled workers regardless of race, ethnicity, or gender, to end capitalism. Potential supporters: sweatshop workers, migrant farm workers, sharecroppers, women workers, blacks, "New" immigrants. Wanted to call a general strike, and then capitalism would collapse. Was hardly effective overall.
Conservationist vs. Preservationist
Conservationist: use resources efficiently
Preservationist: protect environment
Progressive era journalists who wrote articles exposing the corruption in city government, business, and industry. McClure's Magazine was the biggest muckraker (talked about corruption in city governments, corruption/violence in labor unions).
Book written by Upton Sinclair, which exposed the unsanitary conditions in the meatpacking industry. Sinclair was a socialist and hoped readers would realize these failures were result of industrial capitalism, but Roosevelt instead just reformed the meatpacking industry.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Roosevelt enacted it in response to the Jungle; forbids sale of impure and improperly labeled food and drugs
Meat Inspection Act
Roosevelt enacted it in response to the Jungle; requires federal inspection of meatpacking
Political activity intended to bring about changes in the structure or function of city government. Reformers wanted to eliminate corruption and inefficiency
wards and their reform
division of a city or town, especially an electoral district, for administrative or representative purposes. City councils usually consisted of members elected from wards that corresponded to neighborhoods, and middle and working class wards (which surprisingly often supported the corrupt political bosses and machines) usually dominated city councils. Reformers wanted city council members to be able to see beyond their own neighborhoods. They wanted citywide elections, in which all city voters would chose from one list of candidates so that the council members would better address the problems in the city as a whole.
A structural reformer who became mayor of San Francisco and then strengthened office of mayor and required a citywide election of city council members.
system of city government in which executive and legislative powers are vested in a small elective board (that is voted upon by the city voters), and each member supervises some aspect of city government. This was a reform to city government.
City manager plan
system of city government in which the city council hires a city manager who exercises broad executive authority (similar to the structure of a corporation). This was a reform to city government.
Mayor of Detroit; advocated social reforms. Dealt with the city's gas, electric, and streetcar companies because charged too much and provided poor service. When there was a depression, made community vegetable gardens and had work projects for unemployed.
Samuel "Golden Rule" Jones
Mayor of Toledo and promoted childcare for woking mothers, 8 hour workday, public baths, free entertainment.
What reform did Phelan, Pingree, and Jones advocate for?
City ownership of utilities
There were efforts to implement policies regarding planning of urban development by regulating land use (greater govn't control of private property).
reforms in public health
new medical field combining medical knowledge with insight of social scientist and skills of corporate manager. Sought to end hookworm, tuberculosis, and STDs.
Reforms in public schools
new professionals wanted greater centralization and professionalization in school administration by reducing role of local school boards and replacing elected school superintendents with appointed professionals. Educators also came up with new tests to identify children who had learning disabilities.
Robert M. La Follette ("Fighting Bob")
He was devoted to electing reformers to the state legislature. He also wanted to reduce power of party leaders by replacing nominating conventions with the direct primary (voters in a certain party chose that party's candidates to run later in the general election). Got laws passed that regulated corporations and political parties, and in Wisconsin, adopted direct primary, regulated railroads, higher taxes on corporations, merit system for state employees, and restricted lobbyists. He referred to experts at University of Wisconsin for help. These reforms were called "Wisconsin Idea."
Hiram Johnson and his reforms
Governor of CA; regulated railroads and public utilities, restricted political parties, protected labor, conservation, and women suffrage, appointed union leaders to state positions, made reforms to help working people.
Reforms by southern progressives:
health reforms, limits on child labor, prohibition, women suffrage, railed regulation. Lots of competition/conflict between progressive Democrats and conservative Democrats
Attempts to reduce power of party organizations and increase power of individuals
direct primary, state patronage systems were replaced by merit system, lots of high-power jobs were made nonpartisan. Initiative, referendum, recall.
procedure allowing voters to petition to have a new law placed on the ballot to be voted up or down, bypassing the legislature
procedure whereby voters petition to have a legislative act submitted to the voters, who can overturn it
Provision that permits voters, through petition, to hold a special election to remove an elected official from office.
provisions that permit voters to make political decisions directly, including the direct primary, initiative, referendum, and recall
Tactics of interest groups
many groups ignored parties and pressured candidates to accept their opinions. They pressured members to only vote for approved candidates. Used lobbyists to urge legislatures to support their group's position. As political parties became weaker, organized interest groups gained strength. National Association of Manufacturers and AFL both did this.
TR's outlook on politics
thought it was a duty to the nation, not an opportunity for personal achievement. Based his decisions on character, morality, hard work, and patriotism. Whatever rights were not directly prohibited from him, he took advantage of. Expanded the power of the presidency.
TR's view of big business/corporations
thought that it was natural, but some corporations had big problems that needed reform
United States VS. Knight
supreme court decision that prevented Sherman Anti-Trust Act from being used against manufacturers. Roosevelt disagreed with this and when the NOrthern Securities Company created a railroad monopoly, Roosevelt's attorney general filed suit against the company for violating Sherman Act.
Roosevelt did a lot of this. He thought regulation was preferable to breaking up large corporations, which were potentially beneficial, but if the corporations didn't meet his standard of character and public service, then he would bust them. It is the use of antitrust laws to prosecute and dissolve big businesses/trusts.
TR's term for his efforts to deal fairly with all parties.
What are the two cabinets that TR created?
Department of Commerce and Labor (plus a bureau to investigate corporate activities
TR's attempt to regulate railroads:
wanted to regulate railroad rates, have the govn't inspect financial records of railroads, and increase federal authority in strikes.
Hepburn Act: allowed Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to establish maximum railroad rates (no free passes) and regulate other forms of transpiration.
TR, the preservationist:
established 5 national parks, over 50 wildlife preserves.
believed conservation required preservation of land AND carefully planned use of resources. He and TR withdrew a lot of federal timber and grazing land from public sale or use. More than quadrupled the land under federal protection.
TR, the conservationist:
supported Reclamation Act of 1902 (set aside proceeds from federal land sales in many states to finance irrigation projects). This definitely didn't preserve land; it changed it and had lots of canals and dams.
Taft's attempt to control big business
his attorney general trustbusted twice as many as TR did. Strengthened regulatory agencies that regulated big business.
passed under Taft; authorized federal govn't to establish income tax
Required election of US senators directly by the voters of each state, rather than by state legislatures. Reformers had wanted this because claimed that corporate influence and birbery had swayed state legislatures Taft was indifferent
Divisions in Republican party under Taft
Part was split into progressives and conservatives; Taft was more of a conservative. Republican progressives joined with Democrats to revolt against Joseph Cannon's (speaker of the house of reps) powers. Most progressive Republicans disliked Taft.
Taft wanted to reduce the tariff but this tariff retained high rates on most imports. Taft signed it anyway.
Reform program TR advocated before and during his unsuccessful bid to regain the presidency in 1912. Involved tariff reduction, regulation of corporations, minimum wage, end to child labor, woman suffrage, initiative, referendum, recall.
Why did Democrats do so well in election of 1912 (lots of democratic governors, majority in House of Representatives, etc.)?
Because the Republicans were divided among progressives and conservatives
What party did TR run under the second time, and why?
Progressive Party (Bull Moose Party) because when he was vying with Taft for the Republican nomination, the credentials committee was biased towards Taft, so TR's supporters created a new party.
Woodrow Wilson's campaign strategy:
attacked monopolies, favored limits on campaign contributions by corporations, tariff reductions. Program called New Freedom. Wilson met with Louis Brandeis, who convinced Wilson to center his campaign around the issue of big business.
4 presidential candidates in 1912
TR: Progressive Party
Differences in TR's vs. Wilson's arguments.
TR: behavior of corporations is problem, not size. solution: regulation
Wilson: monopoly itself is the problem. solution: break them up. He thought that even if tried to regulate monopolies, they are so powerful that they would try to control the govn't and stop the regulation.
Wilson's background vs. TR's background
Wilson: Grew up in the racist South
TR: Grew up in the North and was raised in a wealthy household.
Wilson's view of govn't:
Believed in party government and an active role for the president in policymaking. He changed the nature of the presidency, like TR. He was first president since John Adams to address Congress in person.
Passed under Wilson; reduced tariffs b/c Wilson thought that high tariff rates bred monopolies by reducing competition. To make up for the lost money, they started the income tax (16th amendment).
Wilson's banking reforms:
Big problem with banking system: no real center to provide direction, no way to adjust the money supply, and concentration of great power in hands of only a few investment bankers.
Conflict: conservatives wanted a more centralized system with minimal federal regulation; progressive democrats wanted strong federal regulation.
Result: compromise. Federal Reserve Act: established 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks where commercial banks kept their reserves (bankers' banks). Participating banks could name 2/3 of the people on the board of directors. Regional banks would be supervised by Federal Reserve Board.
Wilson's reforms in business:
Created a cabinet-level Department of Labor. Passed Clayton Antitrust Act, which banned monopolistic business practices such as price fixing and interlocking directorates (situations in which same individuals sit on the boards of directors of various companies in one industry). Did little to break up big corporations; favored regulation (like TR). The Clayton AntiTrust Act also protected unions. It replaced the Sherman Act, which had way too many loopholes, and instead, listed the specific abuses of big business so that they could trustbust more easily.
Federal Trade Commission Act
Wilson supported this. A regulatory measure intended to prevent unfair methods of competition.
Wilson's policy on racial equality:
He grew up the south; he did believe in segregation, but he didn't do anything to make more segregation.
Tariff reforms implemented during Wilson's term:
Federal Reserve Act and Clayton Act
Wilson's views on social reform:
He just made some social reforms to make progressives happy and to win their votes, but he was really into the economic reforms. He thought that outlawing child labor was unconstitutional, and he wasn't an advocate for women's suffrage.
established 8 hour work day for railroad employees. Law was passed under Wilson
How did TR become president?
Republicans didn't really trust him and didn't want to have to deal with him, so they put him in the vice presidency, which really doesn't have much power. But when McKinley was assassinated, he became prez.
Why was TR a pioneer president?
-considered first modern president; really expanded role of presidency, and Congress wasn't the chief power anymore. HIs principle: any right not specifically denied to the president, he would take advantage of.
-first president to use media to broadcast messages to the public
-first president to campaign as individual, rather than a member of a party. (evidence that the power of political parties was declining).
ratified under Wilson. Direct election of senators as opposed to election by small committee in charge of a state.
Who pushed Taft into running for president?
TR. But when Taft strayed from the progressive path that TR had followed, and passed more conservative reforms, then he wasn't very happy with Taft, and he decided to run against him in the next presidential election.
1- Payne-Aldrich Tariff: it was supposed to be lowering tariffs (and progressives wanted this because it would reduce the power of big businesses), but it actually made tariffs greater, and Taft ratified it anyway.
2- Firing Pinchot, who advocated for conservation and had worked in white house during TR's term. He kept Balanger, who wanted to weaken conservation policies.
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