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Ball Disasters and Failures Final Exam
Terms in this set (91)
Consider the "Scientific Method Monty Python" video & our class discussion. As part of the scientific method, we may form the statement "If geraniums are exposed to classic rock music, then their rate of growth will be greater than those not exposed to such music." What stop of the scientific process is this?
Engineers are trying to determine the cause of a failure (e.g. an airplane crash). Per your lecture notes, one activity that can be used is to
create a simulation in an attempt to replicate & understand the problem
An average in which each item to be averaged is assigned a weight. These weightings determine the relative __________ of each item on the average.
We measure the height of a room 3 times. Each time, we get a reading of 10.0 feet. The room is actually 15 feet high. We consider these measurements to be
inaccurate & precise
Consider the video "Neil DeGrasse Tyson on science literacy". You're considering buying a crystal to cure headaches. Which of the following questions is not one he recommends asking?
What's your return policy?
In cases where it is not possible or practical to consider all the values within a population, we consider this to be a(n) _____________ set. Examples include heat stress measurements under varying conditions or crack links at some position on a bridge and the bridge fails.
Errors that result from some uniform problem and data collection, e.g. weighing someone on a faulty scale that is always 5 pounds off, are called
Consider the reading on pseudoscience. The statement "science cannot explain..." is common in pseudoscience literature. From this, the most likely reason is that
A phenomenon has not yet been explained via the scientific method (or it's a silly clam!)
Thursday may change over time based on new evidence can be categorized as ____________, whereas those that are tend to remain fixed in spite of contradictory evidence (don't change) are generally considered _____________
Among the choices below, science can best be described as a
Process for understanding the world
Consider the "Quake-Proof Bridge" video about a bridge in Japan. In order to allow the towers to absorb the shock of an earthquake, the towers are designed to sway. Inside each tower is a 2nd layer of protection that counteracts the sway to reduce the chances of a tower collapse. What is it that offers this production?
fortified cables and stringers
Current suspension bridges use cables spun from many individual wires. The suspension chains in the Silver Bridge or form from long lengths of steel with holes drilled at either end (I-bars) and attached via Boltz to join them together. The reason the Silver Bridge collapsed was
The I-bar design can't withstand the loads and weaken significantly over time
What is the term for the duplication of critical components or functions of a system with the intention of increasing reliability of the system (e.g., a bridge)
An inexperienced engineer was left in charge of overseeing construction of a bridge that resulted in the collapse of part of a bridge, killing 76 workers. Which bridge was this?
Even if there were enough qualified bridge (there are not), Not all bridge weaknesses can be identified. Which of the following is the one we discussed in class and saw on the videos?
Internal cracking cannot be seen on surfaces
Considering the many factors, like strength, cost, and maintainability, which two materials are generally best for bridge construction?
Steel or reinforced concrete
When to much external load is applied to a bridge, the top of the bridge experiences _____________ and the bottom experience ______________ forces:
The kind of force that acts to twist an object is:
When a load is applied to a structure in a way that the structure does not return to its original shape, one term engineers call this is _____________. (it's the term we sued in class lecture)
According to an ABC news report from 1989, a hole in the roof of a United Airlines flight raised concerns over ______________ in older airplanes
The following graphic shows a(n) _____________. Its shape helps generate ______________.
The central body of an aircraft, which holds the crew, passengers, and cargo and to which the wings and tail assembly are attached is called the
Structural health monitoring systems can benefit the commercial airline industry by
reducing maintenance frequency
The aerodynamic force that opposes an aircraft's forward motion through the air is called:
The 1st two De Havilland Comet disasters failed at the forward ADF window. This window was one of two apertures for the aerials of an electronic navigation system. This, combined with problems with the square window design, led to the conclusion that the cause was
fatigue crack growth
According to class discussion, which types of flights tend to place the most stress loading on airplanes?
frequent take-offs & landings
One of the simplest ways to increase lift is to increase the size of the airfoils. Which is one of the disadvantages of doing so?
The forensics team had to develop hypotheses and tests to try to determine what happened to the Comet aircraft. One of the tests they conducted was to build a small model of the plane, put it in a pressure chamber, to deliberately rupture the model. The result of this experiment was
the cabin experienced explosive decompression
Consider airplane wing design (as we saw in the animated video). Faster moving air on the top of a wing surface has __________________ than the other side of the wing surfaces, resulting in increased ______________ on the aircraft
more weight, drag
A medical device that (among other uses) can suggest which parts of the brain are involved in a particular mental process (e.g., facial recognition) is known as a
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imager
The type of radiation composed of positively charged helium nuclei is known as
The type of radiation that is capable of stripping electrons from atoms creating highly reactive atoms with an electric charge is called
The part of an atom that carries positive charge is the
From the Udacity video, a type of software error that occurs when different threads of execution fail to properly synchronize is known as a
According to the discussion in your notes, which of the following problems was NOT a factor in the failures of the Therac-25?
the software was very unreliable
What was happening to the patients being hurt or killed by the Therac-25?
they received massive doses of radiation
(From the Udacity video) The Therac 25 had a number of bugs in the controller. What is meant by bug in this context?
an error made by software programmerS
The AECL engineers investigating the "Malfunction 54" error in the Therac 25 disasters discovered that this error only occurred when the radiation therapist
pressed command keys more quickly than the manufacturer's test engineers
Which is the unit of measure for the flow of electric charge through a circuit
What does it mean when we say that a part of the power system "trips offline"?
A component fails or has to be taken out of service
From the video "The Smart Grid". Utility companies have to try to perfectly match (nearly instantaneously) the electricity supplied with demand. If this does not occur, the result may be
Consider the power grid components. Electricity from high voltage power lines is next routed to _______________, where voltage is stepped down (reduced) for distribution to homes and businesses.
A system operator can employ a _____________ within a short time in order to meet demand in case a generator goes down or there is another disruption to the supply
If a power plant, sub-station or line fails, the grid will try to switch around problems. As a result of a switchover too much voltage or current may be applied to a working line causing it to also fail (then perhaps a whole series of failures). The term we sued for this was
To avoid downed power lines, they can be buried underground. As discussed in class why is this not done for the high-voltage lines?
much higher cost
From the Scientific American video "What is the Smart Grid", electric companies are adding sensors in places that use lots of electricity, like factories (and possibly to smart homes in the future). What is the main reason given?
To better predict electrical use and detect outages
In the North American Blackout (2003), more than 100 power plants tripped off-line because the Ohio operators were unaware that there was a problem, and thus didn't warn other plants. Why not?
Alarms weren't activated because of a software bug (defect) in the control system
Blackouts may become more likely for a number of reasons, including
The following is about one of the disasters in the notes/videos. where did this occur?
-Design: there was no containment structure
-Event: an operator SCRAMs the reactor (he did not survive)
-Event: an explosion causes extremely radioactive components of the reactor to catch fire, creating a highly radioactive cloud
The following are some of the resulting events that occurred in this disaster. Where did this occur?
-the reactor core melted and internal temperatures were as high as 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit
-hydrogen in the containment area explodes but the structure of the containment building holds
-radioactive gas was released (but not at harmful levels)
In a nuclear reactor, raising and lowering the ____________ allow operators to control the rate of nuclear reactions
In addition to concerns about safely operating a nuclear power plant, a significant concern is
radioactive waste storage
This government agency regulates the civilian uses of nuclear materials in the United States to protect public health and safety:
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Uranium mined from the Earth must be enriched to be usable in a nuclear power plant or a weapon. The degree to which this must occur is greater for
In a nuclear power plant, nuclear fuel rods are used to produce ____________ that rotates a turbine connected to an electricity generator
Energy can be transformed from one form to another. In a wind turbine, ____________ energy is converted into electrical energy. (Day 1 lecture notes)
Nuclear fusion is the process of
combining lighter atoms into heavier ones
Even though the Betamax video tape product was of higher quality, Sony quickly loses market share to companies making VHS tapes. As stated in your lecture notes, this was primarily due to
Sony chose to make a Betamax a propriety product; it never reached the low cost product stage
Quigly and Debons define ____________ as that which answers the question who, when, what, or where, and ____________ as that which answers questions of why & how (we used example of golf scores in class)
According to lecture notes, the phase of the BRETAM product development lifecycle in which hypotheses are formed about the causal systems underlying experience is known as the ____________ stage.
The current world leader in high performance massively parallel supercomputers was China in 2014. Per the "Update:..." video, in 2016 it is
Applying the scientific method and using one's ____________ contribute to discoveries and breakthroughs (per notes & class discussion)
creativity (innovative ideas)
The lecture notes define ____________ as the science concerned with gathering, classifying, manipulation, spring, and retrieving knowledge
What was the order of the 3 space programs we studied (Which was covered 1st, 2nd, and 3rd?)
Mercury, Gemini, Apollo
According to the video "5 Everyday Products Developed from NASA Countdown", which is one of the technologies we now have available?
On July 20, 1969, Commander ____________ became the first man to walk on the moon
Two of the objectives of the Mercury program were to (1) investigate human's ability to function in space and (2) to recover the spacecraft safely. The 3rd was to:
orbit a spacecraft around Earth
Disregarding concerns of North American Aviation (the capsule maker), NASA insisted on two aspects of the final Apollo 1 design, which likely led in part to the death of the astronauts, One was:
pressuring the capsule with pure oxygen (not an N2/O2 mix)
Objectives of the Gemini program included (1) developing techniques for advanced space travel, (2) gain experience with EVA's, and:
test ability to rendezvous & dock
In the Apollo 13 accident, ____________ tanks exploded, forcing the crew to use the ____________ Module as a lifeboat. (A movie was made about this mission).
Per our discussion Wednesday, the estimate age of our universe is about ____________ years old.
Per our discussion Wednesday, without the effects of Earth's environmental conditions, ____________ allow scientists to study many things, including questions of what material (like water) may have come from meteors and how the components of life may have originated.
What is the name of the company founded by Elon Musk that has spacecraft that can carry cargo (but not humans) to the ISS? (Hint: Musk also started the Tesla company)
In order to establish a long-term human presence in space, including traveling to other planets, some experts recommend establishing which of the following? (per your notes)
a lunar base (on the Moon)
In addition to bone loss caused by extended periods of time in space, another major concern regarding the astronauts' health, as listed in your notes, is:
radiation exposure leading to increased risk of cancer.
Which Asian country landed an unmanned rover on the moon in 2013? (the Jade Rabbit)
The esa (European Space Agency) Rosetta mission was the first to land on
In 2013, an astronaut performing a space-walk experience a deadly situation when his space suit helmet began
filling with water
The Columbia shuttle disaster that occurred in 2003 and killed all on-board in the final minutes of their scientific research. Per slides, the initial cause of the failure was damage to:
the external fuel tank
Some people argue that the U.S. should not spend tax money to fund NASA. The actual amount spent is roughly ____________ of the total federal budget (pie chart from your lecture notes)
The Challenger space shuttle disaster investigation revealed that the ____________, which had become brittle in the cold temperatures, failed. This was the shuttle that exploded during take-off in 1986.
____________ was the 1st network that became the basis for the Internet, initially connecting 4 university computers in 1968/1969. It was developed under the direction of the U.S. government.
New software methods are being used to retrieve, organize, and find patterns from diverse data sources (video, audio, web sites, etc.). As described in class, all this data is collectively referred to as
The basic job of____________ is to turn a user-friendly domain name like "amazon.com" into an Internet Protocol (IP) address like 22.214.171.124 that computers use to identify each other on the network
Domain Name Servers
Google's Page Rank algorithm includes rating the importance of a page by the numbers of
links from other pages
Concerning the privacy discussion in the "Internet Everywhere" an example is given of the unintended consequences of simply posting a picture from your vacation in Egypt. This example describes how
through a sequence of innocent tagging of photos of pyramids, a bystander in the picture might be identified as someone who lied about his whereabouts.
The ability to cheaply connect things to the internet that are able to collect and exchange data using embedded circuits (sensors). Thermostats, cars, lights, refrigerators, and more can all be connected. Applications included smart homes and health-care. This technology is known as
Coded information (e.g. HTML) sent from the Web is translated to a form we can understand (e.g. video, images) by a ____________. This software runs on our computers, phones, etc.
Web Browser (like Firefox & Safari)
The ____________ is the portion of the World Wide Web content that you can't find with standard search engines, like Google. Included within this is a subset of anonymous networks that are sometimes used to host black market products, like illegal drugs.
The ____________ was created by a software engineer at the CERN supercollider in 1992.
One technique used by search engines (like Google) is to run special programs called ____________ to search the web for pages and then store information about those pages in their computers.
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