FCS 102 Exam 4
Terms in this set (193)
Vitamin B complex
Convert food into fuel (water soluble)
Healing wounds, forming scar tissue (water soluble)
makes WBC for defense
Gathers Calcium and Phosphorus for bones
Antioxidant for damaged cells
Score ability to blood clot
how many essential water-soluble vitamins are there?
mnemonic for b vitamins
Thomas (B1 = Thiamine)
Robinson (B2 = riboflavin)
Never (B3 = niacin)
Plays (B5 = pantothenic acid)
Poor (B6 = pyroxidine)
Basketball (B7 = biotin)
Consistently (B12 = cobalamin)
the water-soluble vitamins:
8 B vitamins and vitamin C
are water-soluble vitamins stored?
not in significant quantities; excreted easily
the degree at which a substance (such as vitamins) is absorbed and becomes useful
major function of most B vitamins
coenzymes for energy metabolism
another name for vitamin C
by the enrichment law, which nutrients must be added?
B1, B2, B3, folate, iron
how are water-soluble vitamins destroyed or lost?
water, air, heat, light, acidity (HA LAW)
how can one minimize the loss of riboflavin in milk?
keep out of the light
how can one minimize the loss of water-soluble vitamins when cooking broccoli?
use minimal heat & avoid excess water
sources of thiamin (B1)
PORK, fish, legumes, whole/enriched grain
stability of thiamin
easily destroyed during cooking
functions of thiamin
production of acetyl CoA
; coenzyme roles for energy metabolism; nerve function
deficiency of thiamin causes:
beriberi "great weakness,"
severe muscle wasting, nerve damage, edema, heart damage
sources of riboflavin (B2)
MILK/dairy, meat, enriched foods
stability of riboflavin
destroyed by excessive light
functions of riboflavin
coenzyme - energy metabolism
deficiency of riboflavin
ariboflavinosis, cheilosis, glossitis, stomatitis
sources of niacin (B3)
LIVER, poultry, fish, whole grains
which water-soluble vitamin can by produced in the body?
niacin can be made in the body by:
stability of niacin
not easily destroyed
functions of niacin
coenzyme - energy metabolism, DNA synthesis and repair, glucose homeostasis, cholesterol metabolism
deficiency of niacin
4 D's - dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea, death
sources of pantothenic acid (B5)
almost every (Pan) plant & animal tissue, beef liver, shittake mushrooms, fortified breakfast cereal
stability of pantothenic acid
easily destroyed by heat🔥
functions of pantothenic acid
deficiency of pantothenic acid
burning feet syndrome - nerve endings die
3 forms of B6
pyroxene, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine
sources of B6
plant & animal sources, fortified foods, Garbanzo beans/chickpeas, tuna, beef liver, rice, potato
stability of B6
destroyed by prolonged heating & freezing🔥❄️
functions of B6
"critical" for metabolism of "amino acids"; transamination, synthesis of neurotransmitters & hemoglobin
deficiency of B6
microcytic hypochromic anemia
deficiency of B6
microcytic hypochromic anemia
RBCs are small and pale
sources of Biotin (B7)
nuts, eggs, mushrooms, bacteria in large intestines
stability of biotin
destroyed by heat, light, soaking💧🔥☀️
functions of biotin
energy metabolism, gluconeogenesis, cell growth and development
deficiency of biotin
depression, hallucinations, skin irritations, hair loss, seizures
sources of folate
green leafy veggies, legumes, orange juice, enriched foods, turkey giblets
stability of folate
destroyed by excessive heat, light, oxygen
functions of folate
prevention of neural tube defects like spina bifida (pregnant women need lots)
deficiency of folate
megaloblastic macrocytic anemia; neural tube defects like spina bifida during 1st trimester
megaloblastic macrocytic anemia
large, immature RBCs
sources of B12 (cobalamin)
shellfish, meat, dairy (animal products)
stability of B12
not easily destroyed - destroyed by oxidizing/reducing agents
functions of B12
deficiency of B12
pernicious anemia; megaloblastic macrocytic anemia
sources of vitamin C
can be made by all plants & most animals except humans; fruit
stability of vitamin C
destroyed by heat
functions of vitamin C
, collagen production, protect cells from free radicals - immune function
deficiency of vitamin C
protein in eggs that binds with biotin & makes it less available for absorption
most common neural tube defect
what two deficiencies resemble one another?
folate & B12
______ deficiency is often misdiagnosed as folate deficiency
which water-soluble vitamin uses an intrinsic factor for absorption?
B12: intrinsic factor
produced by cells in stomach for B12 absorption in small intestine later
vitamin transport & absorption are both _________
why is vitamin C a critical antioxidant?
it protects cell membranes from destruction
are vitamins organic or inorganic?
properties of water-soluble vitamins
dissolve easily in water, travel easily through systems, needed daily
almost all water-soluble vitamins are absorbed in the ________
bloodstream to liver
cerebral beriberi (Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome) causes
alcoholism & dementia
cheilosis, glossitis, stomatitis
various forms of mouth inflammation
two forms of niacin
nicotinic acid & nicotinamide
lime treatment of corn increases bioavailability of:
bioavailability of riboflavin
high niacin intake:
decrease LDL cholesterol & increase HDL cholesterol; flushing/redness in face
what are the fat-soluble vitamins required by humans?
A, D, E, K
what must be present for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins?
fat-soluble vitamins are circulated in _______ via _________
where are fat-soluble vitamins stored?
liver & some adipose tissue
are fat-soluble or water-soluble vitamins more stable?
how can fat-soluble vitamins become toxic?
which carotenoid is commonly found in plant foods and is associated with red-orange/orange pigments?
the body can convert retinol to _________. This conversion is ___________.
the body can convert retinal to ___________. This conversion is ______________.
retinoid acid; irreversible
preformed vitamin A is also called:
preformed vitamin A is mainly found in:
provitamin A is mainly found in
provitamin A is also known as:
main functions of vitamin A:
vision (night blindness), growth (cell differentiation), immune function (skin, longings, membranes), cancer prevention (but too much can cause it), bone strength (necessary tear-down & repair)
cells that build up bone
cells that break down bone
lack of retinal resulting in low rhodopsin needed for light adjustment
deficiency disorders of vitamin A
night blindness, xerophthalmia, hyperkeratosis, infection
scaling of cornea
too much growth of keratin
what causes skin to appear orange & is not harmful?
two forms of vitamin D
D2 & D3
which form of vitamin D can be made by the body?
vitamin D is made by:
produced in the body by the skin
vitamin D2 comes from:
vitamin D3 comes from:
most milk is fortified with which two fat-soluble vitamins?
vitamins A & D
what factors affect vitamin D production by the body?
skin color - more melanin = less D formed
, environment (cloudy/foggy vs. sunny), age (less formed in elderly)
what is the active form of vitamin D?
what organs are involved with activation of vitamin D?
liver & kidneys
how does vitamin D help maintain calcium balance in the blood?
increase calcium absorption in the small intestine, decrease calcium excretion by the kidneys, increase calcium released from the bones
vitamin D deficiency diseases
bone demineralization (softening), rickets in children, osteomalacia & osteoporosis in adults
what percentage of women are likely to develop osteoporosis?
major sources of vitamin E
vegetable oil (unique to vitamin E)*, nuts, seeds, dark green veggies
major deficiency of vitamin E
hemolytic anemia - rupturing of RBCs
how is vitamin K made in the body?
bacteria in the large intestine
major source of vitamin K?
main function of vitamin K?
WHAT is the concern for infants and vitamin K deficiency?
vitamin K deficiency bleeding
WHY is there concern for infants and vitamin K deficiency?
their digestive tracts are "clean" - don't have much bacteria for vitamin K production
preformed vitamin A/retinoids have three forms:
retinol, retinal, retinoid acid
which of the three types of retinoids is most active?
vitamin D is highly active in the:
liver & kidneys
3 types of vitamin K:
phylloquinone (plants), menaquinone (animals), menadione (supplements)
calcium deposits in soft tissues
excess calcium in urine, kidney problems
is vitamin E easily destroyed?
vitamin E functions
antioxidant: cancer prevention, cardiovascular health, prevention of cataracts
action of bile
produced by the liver, emulsification of lipid compounds
provitamin A _______ be converted to vitamin A
nonprovitamin A ________ be converted to vitamin A
retinol activity equivalent (RAE)
due to difference in absorption (12 beta carotene = 1 RAE)
cells grow and become specific types of cells
how many essential minerals are there?
needed in small amounts
major minerals are absorbed in the ___________
major minerals are excreted by the ___________
most abundant mineral in the human body
where is calcium found in the body?
bones (99%), blood & other tissues (1%)
3 excellent sources for calcium
dairy, fish with bones, leafy green veggies
two forms of calcium supplements
calcium carbonate (cheaper), calcium citrate (better absorbed)
what can cause a decreases in the bioavailability of calcium?
what can cause an increase in the bioavailability of calcium?
3 hormones involved in the homeostasis of calcium in the blood
calcitriol, PTH, calcitonin
when blood calcium is low, _____________ is activated
PTH & calcitriol
what do PTH & calcitriol do?
increase Ca reabsorption, absorption, and resorption
when blood calcium is high, ___________ is activated
what does calcitonin do?
decreases Ca reabsorption, absorption, and resorption
crystallization on bone
what makes up hydroxyapatite?
Ca + Mg + P + Fl
moderate loss of bone mass
large loss of bone mass
what happens if you take too many calcium supplements?
toxicity - Ca deposits in soft tissue & kidney stones
what are major sources of phosphorus in the US diet?
processed foods & soft drinks
phosphorus is naturally high in:
major functions of phosphorus
phospholipid bilayer, phosphate bonds in DNA/ATP
what can decreases the bioavailability of magnesium?
high intakes of Ca, P, and fiber
toxicity of magnesium can be caused by overusing:
the two major positively charged electrolytes
sodium & potassium
the two major negatively charged electrolytes
chloride & phosphate
less than 5mg/serving
major sources of sodium in the US diet
table salt & processed foods
major function of sodium & chloride
regulate fluid balance
major function of chloride in digestive system
hydrochloric acid - in stomach; immune function
hyponatremia can be caused by:
inadequate salt intake (rare)
high blood sodium levels
purpose of DASH diet
stop/prevent hypertension, also helps with weight loss
potassium is an important cation in:
sodium is an important cation in:
low potassium in the body
what causes low potassium?
diuretics, bulimia, prolonged vomiting or diarrhea
do males or females have more body water?
males - more lean tissue, less fat
critical functions of water in the body
resistance to temperature change, cooling, body fluids, pH balance, chemical reactions
around of water in muscle tissue
amount of water in adipose tissue
AI for water
men - 3.7 liters/day; women - 2.7 liters/day
what people need more water?
athletes, those in hot environments, pregnant/breastfeeding women, active people
how do we input water?
beverages, food, metabolism
how do we output water?
kidneys, skin, lungs, feces
function of ADH
regulation of fluid excretion, stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys
stimuli for thirst
increased osmolarity of of fluid at osmoreceptors in hypothalamus; reduced blood pressure & volume; dryness of mouth & mucous lining of esophagus
how long does it take a person to feel thirst?
where does a majority of water get absorbed?
small intestine & colon
we need _____ mg per day of major minerals
are minerals found in higher amounts in animal or plant foods?
calcium's regulatory function
clot formation (with vitamin K)
roles of magnesium
bone structure - mineral structure
AI for salt
1,500 mg (differs)
low blood sodium levels (rare)
how many adults have hypertension?
insensible water loss
water loss you don't notice is happening (breathing, skin, feces, etc)
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