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17 terms

ORHS 9th Biology - Biomolecules

Biology Vocabulary
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carbohydrate
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body
monosacccharide
a single sugar molecule
lipid/fat
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
fatty acid
an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils
amino acid
basic building blocks of protein molecules
nucleic acid
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
nucleotide
building block of a nucleic acid (DNA and RNA)
monomer
a simple molecule that can combine with other like or unlike molecules to make a polymer
polymer
a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers
enzyme
specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions
substrate
the substance acted upon by an enzyme or ferment
activation energy
the minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction
catalyst
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
reactant
a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
product
a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
protein
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes
ORHS 9th Biology
Biomolecules