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Pharm: FINAL EXAM
Terms in this set (74)
ventolin: generic name
ventolin: drug class
ventolin: forms of administration
PO and inhaler
ventolin: most common form of administration
ventolin (inhaler): what is it for
It's a RESCUE DRUG used to relax muscles in the airways to increase airflow to the lungs in the patients with disease processes such as...
ventolin (PO): what is it for
used as long-term control for chronic bronchospasms in patients with asthma or COPD
ventolin is what type of drug?
Ventolin is an adrenergic drug. What do adrenergic drugs do?
mimicks norepinephrine and epinephrine... thus, leads to...
-increase heart rate
-increase force of contractions of heart
ventolin: side effects
ventolin: dietary considerations
A patient with asthma has an order to take ventolin. The nurse also notices that the patient has a beta blocker prescribed at the same time. Can the patient take both?
No, beta blockers may negate the effects
(THINK: beta "adrenergic" blockers)
A patient tells the nurse that he takes ventolin "every hour, even if I don't have an asthma exacerbation". The nurse explains to the patient that increased/over-use of ventolin may cause ...
(AKA, rebound bronchospasm)
A nurse explains to a patient taking ventolin that over-use can lead to paradoxical bronchospasm. What is paradoxical bronchospasm?
an increased narrowing of the airway leading to worsening of breathing
HCTZ: generic name
HCTZ: drug class
What is HCTZ administered for?
Can a patient take HCTZ and other anti-hypertensives at the same time, as a combination?
HCTZ [IS/IS NOT] potassium sparing
How does HCTZ remove sodium in the body?
works by removing excess sodium through the urine
HCTZ: side effects
-hypokalemia (muscle cramps, weakness, dysrhythmias)
-hyponatremia (more likely than loop diuretics)
A client is being administered HCTZ. What are the nursing interventions that need to be implemented?
-for peripheral edema
An elder client is being given HCTZ. What kind of risk is the client tagged as?
When should you give a client HCTZ?
always as early as possible to prevent sleep interruption
A client is taking HCTZ. What labs need to be monitored?
A client is taking HCTZ and being monitored for daily weights. What is a normal weight gain?
1-3 lbs a day (if more than 3, notify MD)
Lasix: generic name
Lasix: drug class
Lasix: what is it used for?
-edema D/T heart failure
Lasix: How does it work?
-inhibits reabsorption of sodium and chloride from the loop of hence
-increases renal excretion of water, sodium, chloride, magnesium, potassium, and calcium
Lasix: side effects
-hypokalemia (greater than HCTZ)
Lasix: labs to monitor
Lasix [IS/IS NOT] potassium sparing
There is a client who is taking HCTZ. There is another client who is taking Lasix. Which one will definitely need a potassium supplement?
Client taking Lasix
Lasix is mostly used for what type of situations?
acute (Ex: IVP STAT if pt has edema and has no diuretics prescribed)
Lasix vs HCTZ: Which diuretic places a client at higher risk for hypokalemia?
Lasix vs HCTZ: Which diuretic places a client at higher risk for hyponatremia?
Lasix vs HCTZ: Which diuretic places a client at lower risk for hypokalemia?
Lasix vs HCTZ: Which diuretic places a client at lower risk for hyponatremia?
Pepcid: generic name
pepcid: drug class
anti-ulcer/histamine H2 antagonist
Pepcid is a histamine H2 antagonist. How does it work?
reduces the secretion of gastric acid by limiting the action of histamine at the H2 receptor site
Pepcid: What does it treat?
Pepcid: side effects
arrhythmias (most commonly seen when given IV) d/t calcium component in pepcid
A client says that she is gonna go buy Pepcid over-the-counter. What should you teach the client?
s&s of more serious conditions and when to call the MD
pepcid: route of administration
IVP (push slowly, 2-5 minutes)
pepcid IVP: what happens if you push too fast?
protonix: generic name
protonix: drug class
anti-ulcer/proton pump inhibitor (PPI)
protonix: What does it treat?
protonix: how does it work?
lowers acid levels in the stomach by blocking the final step in acid production
protonix must be used in caution with what other drugs?
dilantin and coumadin (protonix can increase serum levels of both)
Relationship between stress and gastric secretions
more stress leads to the body producing more gastric secretions
phenergan: generic name
phenergan: drug class
phenergan: routes of administration
phenergan: side effects
phenergan has a synergistic effect when taken with what other drug class?
narcotics (WATCH FOR Resp. depression)
Phenergan: What routes of administration should be limited and why?
IV and IM
-may cause tissue necrosis at injection site
Phenergan: no more than _mg should be given IV
Phenergan: if giving less than 12.5 mg, how should you give it?
diluted with at least 10mL normal saline
Phenergan: if giving more than 12.5mg, how should you give it?
IVPB with at least 50mL normal saline
Phenergan: if given IVP, what should you know?
-push slowly (2-5 minutes)
-stop immediately if pt experiences pain or burning at site
Most hospitals use this antiemetic as a last resort drug d/t high risk of tissue necrosis
A client is being administered Phenergan. What should you monitor for?
-pain or burning at site
-over-sedation (LL respiratory depression)
If a client is being administered Phenergan, what type of precaution is he or she tagged under?
Fall precautions (d/t side effects)
antiemetic that is the first drug of choice for nausea/vomiting?
Zofran: generic name
Zofran: drug class
Zofran: routes of administration
Zofran: What is it for?
-Originally approved for (and most effective with) n&v caused by chemotherapy and radiation treatments secondary to cancer and for post-surgical n&v
-NOW, used for overall general n&v
Zofran: describe the sedative effects
Does not have the sedative effects that comes with taking Phenergan
Zofran: side effects
Zofran: Why is it our go-to for nausea and vomiting?
less potent than phenergan
Zofran: Although it is our go-to for n&v, why is it still hard for patients to get?
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