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Terms in this set (41)
A characteristic manifestation of polycystic kidney disease is:
The most damaging effects of urinary obstruction are the result of _____ and unrelieved obstruction of urine outflow.
Glomerulonephritis is usually caused by:
The edema that develops in persons with glomerulonephritis and nephrotic syndrome reflects:
salt and water retention
The initiating event in the development of nephrotic syndrome is a derangement in the glomerular membrane that causes increased permeability to:
High-risk factors for development of adult renal cell cancer include:
Which of the following assessment findings is most suggestive of nephrotic syndrome?
Proteinuria and generalized edema
The most recent assessment of a patient with a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes indicates a heightened risk of diabetic nephropathy. Which of the following assessment findings is most suggestive of this increased risk?
An elderly female patient has been hospitalized for the treatment of acute pyelonephritis. Which of the following characteristics of the patient is most likely implicated in the etiology of her current health problem?
The patient recently had a urinary tract infection.
An adult patient has been diagnosed with polycystic kidney disease. Which of the patient's following statements demonstrates an accurate understanding of this diagnosis?
"I suppose I should be tested to see if my children might inherit this."
A patient has recently undergone successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for the treatment of renal calculi. Which of the following measures should the patient integrate into his lifestyle to reduce the risk of recurrence?
Increased fluid intake and dietary changes
Which of the following patient complaints most clearly suggests a need for diagnostic testing to rule out renal cell carcinoma?
The most common indicator of acute renal failure is:
A patient had excessive blood loss and prolonged hypotension during surgery. His postoperative urine output is sharply decreased and his blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is elevated. The most likely cause for the change is acute:
ischemic tubular necrosis.
A patient is beginning to recover from acute tubular necrosis. The recovery phase of ATN is characterized by:
Regardless of the cause, chronic kidney disease results in progressive permanent loss of nephrons, glomerular filtration and renal:
When the glomerular transport maximum for a substance such as blood glucose is exceeded and its renal threshold has been reached, the substance will:
spill into the urine.
Only the kidneys can eliminate ____ from the body as a means of regulating body acid-base balance, when urine buffers are present.
The kidney assists in blood pressure regulation by releasing_______ from the juxtaglomerular cells in response to decreased renal blood flow, resulting in efferent arteriole vasoconstriction.
In addition to regulating body fluids and electrolytes, the kidneys function in maintaining bone calcium levels by:
activating vitamin D.
Which one of the following blood tests reflects the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and is used to estimate renal function?
An athlete has become dehydrated during a long race in hot weather. Which of the following physiologic processes will occur in an attempt to protect the athlete's extracellular fluid volume?
Release of ADH from the posterior pituitary
A patient's most recent blood work reveals a blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level of 36 mg/dL (normal range 8 to 25 mg/dL). Which of the following factors may have contributed to this finding?
Which of the following physiologic processes is performed by the kidneys and contributes to increased blood pressure?
Production and release of renin
A patient has a diagnosis of chronic renal failure secondary to diabetic nephropathy. Which of the following hematologic changes may result from this patient's kidney disorder?
A patient with a recent diagnosis of renal failure that will require hemodialysis is being educated in the dietary management of the disease. Which of the patient's following statements shows an accurate understanding of this component of treatment?
"I've made a list of high-phosphate foods so that I can try to avoid them."
The nurse is providing care for a patient who has a diagnosis of kidney failure. Which of the following laboratory findings is consistent with this patient's diagnosis?
Which of the following individuals likely faces the greatest risk for the development of chronic kidney disease?
A patient with a recent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes who does not monitor his blood sugars or control his diet
A patient with a diagnosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) may require the administration of which of the following drugs to treat the consequences of CKD?
Which of the following descriptions is true of peritoneal dialysis?
Treatment involves the introduction of a sterile dialyzing solution, which is drained after a specified time.
Which of the following integumentary problems most often accompanies chronic kidney disease?
Dry skin and pruritus
The functional unit of the kidney is known as the:
To maintain hematocrit levels in people with kidney failure, the nurse should be prepared to
administer a subcutaneous injection of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO).
A nurse educator is performing client education with a 51-year-old man who has been recently diagnosed with chronic kidney disease. Which of the following statements by the client would the nurse most likely want to correct or clarify?
"My kidney problems increase my chance of developing high blood pressure or diabetes."
A 42-year-old male has been diagnosed with renal failure secondary to diabetes mellitus and is scheduled to begin dialysis soon. Which of the following statements by the client reflects an accurate understanding of the process of hemodialysis?
"I won't be able to go about my normal routine during treatment."
Which of the following clinical findings among older adults is most unlikely to warrant further investigation and possible treatment?
A 78-year-old female's GFR has been steadily declining over several years.
A 24-year-old college student has presented to the campus medical clinic with complaints of frequent, burning urination and has, subsequent to urinalysis, been diagnosed with an acute lower urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by E. coli. What teaching will the clinician most likely provide to the student?
"Many of these bacteria are now resistant to some antibiotics, but I will take that into account when I choose which antibiotic to prescribe."
A patient has just been diagnosed with acute glomerulonephritis. Which question should the nurse ask this client in attempting to establish a cause?
"Have you had any type of infection within the last 2 weeks?"
Which of the following data would a clinician consider as most indicative of acute renal failure?
Increased nitrogenous waste levels; decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
The clinical nurse educator on a nephrology unit of a large, urban hospital is orientating recent nursing graduates to the unit. Which of the following teaching points about acute tubular necrosis (ATN) should the educator include in the orientation session?
"Trauma, burns, and major surgery are common precursors to ATN."
Which of the following medications would the nurse anticipate being prescribed for the renal failure patient who has hyperphosphatemia?
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