Plate Tectonic

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rock cycle
The series of processes that change one type of rock into another type of rock.
matter cycling
Matter is constantly cycled between biotic and abiotic parts of the environment.
energy flow
The transfer of energy from one object (biotic or abiotic) to another.
crustal deformation
Changes to the crust of the earth caused by plate tectonics.
volcano
A weak spot in the crust where magma has come to the surface. Can occur at subduction zones or hot spots.
plate tectonics
A theory stating that the earth's surface is broken into plates that move.
magma
Liquid rock that is found underground.
lava
Liquid rock that is found on or above ground.
crust
The layer that is broken into multiple pieces that. Is constantly being melted and reformed.
mantle
The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core.
core
This provides the heat that drives the convection currents in the asthenosphere.
asthenosphere
The upper layer of the earth's mantle, below the lithosphere, where the rock can flow and convection is thought to occur.
convergent subduction
The process in which two plates collide and the denser ocean plate descends below the other. Crust is destroyed (melted) here.
convergent plate boundary
When two tectonic plates collide into each other.
convergent collision
Plates crash into one another creating a mountain range
transform plate boundary
Boundary between two plates that are sliding past each other.
divergent plate boundary
Where two plates are moving apart, magma comes up to create new crust.
hot spot
An stationary area under a moving plate where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it creating a chain of volcanoes.
mountain formation
Formation created when two continental plates push together and cause rock to move upward.
ocean trench
Deep valley in the ocean floor that forms along a subduction zone.
ocean ridge
An underwater mountain range formed at a divergent plate boundary where new crust is created/cooled.
earthquake
The shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface at a transform plate boundary.
convection currents
Circular currents in the mantle caused by the magma being heated by the core off the Earth.
density
A measure of how much mass is contained in a given volume.
temperature
A measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of a substance.
cold magma
Magma that is dense and will sink.
hot magma
Magma that is less dense and will rise.
Alfred Wegener
The scientist that proposed the theory of Pangaea and Continental Drift.
Henry Hess
Man who discovered seafloor spreading at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
fossil
A trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock.
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