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33 terms

CS 314 Midterm 1 - Terms and Defs 2

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Gedanken
describes a thought experiment or view of an entity.
Goal
an item or description of items being sought in a search.
Grammar
a formal description of a language in terms of vocabulary and rules for writing phrases and sentences.
Immutable
describes a data structure that cannot be changed once it has been created.
Inorder
an order of processing a tree in which the parent node is processed in between it's children.
Interior Node
a node of a tree that has children.
Interpreter
a program that reads instructions, determines what they say, and executes them.
Intersection
given two sets, the intersection is the set of elements that are members of both sets.
Intractable
a problem that is so hard that it cannot be solved unless the problem is small.
Java Virtual Machine
an interpreter for compiled Java bytecodes.
Leaf
a tree node containing contents value but with no children.
LIFO
last-in, first-out: describes the order of a stack.
Linear
O(n), a problem whose solution requires a linear amount of time or space if the problem is size n.
Link
a pointer to the next element in a linked list.
Linked List
a sequence of records, where each record contains a link to the next one.
Merge
to combine to ordered linear structures into one.
Node
an element of a linked list, tree, or graph, often represented by a data structure.
Null Dereference
a runtime error that occurs when an operation such as a method call is attempted on a null pointer.
Object
a data structure that can be identified at runtime as a member of a class.
Ontology
a description of the kinds of objects that exist in a computer program.
Operator
in a search tree, a program that changes a state into a child state.
Parent
in a tree, a node that points to a given node.
Pointer
a variable containing the address of other data.
Postorder
an order of processing a tree in which the parent node is processed after it's children.
Preorder
an order of processing a tree in which the parent node is processed before it's children.
Quadratic
O(n^2), a problem whose solution requires a quadratic amount of time or space if the problem is of size n.
Queue
a data structure representing a series of items, which are removed in the same order they were inserted.
Random Access
describes a data structure or device in which all accesses have the same cost, O(1).
Recursion
a case where a program calls itself.
Recursive Case
a condition of the input data where the data will be handled by calls to the same program.
Reference
a pointer to data.
Reference Type
a type in which variables of that type are pointers to objects.
Root
the top node of a tree, from which all other nodes can be reached.