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88 terms

A&P 2 lymphatics and respiratory system

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What are the 4 functions of the lymphatic system
return lymph to general circulation, produce maintain and distribute lymphocytes, monitor for pathogens, resist infection and disease
What are the 4 organizations of the lymphatic system?
lymph, lymphatic vessels, lymphoid tissues and organs, lymphocytes
what is a fluid similar to plasma?
lymph
Does lymph have plasma proteins?
no
what is a network that carries lymph from peripheral tissues to the venous system?
lymphatics
what respond to environmental pathogens and toxins abnormal cells, cancers and disease?
lymphocytes and phagocytes
which defense blocks and attacks any potential infectious organisms and cannot distinguish one attack from another
nonspecific defenses
lymphocytes are part of which defense system?
specific defense
where are lymphocytes produced?
lymphoid tissues, lymphoid organs and in red bone marrow
how do lymphocytes travel?
through blood and lymph
what transports lipids form the digestive tract?
lymphatic lacteals
where does the thoracic duct empty?
left subclavian vein
where does the lymphatic duct empty
right subclavian vein
what happens when there is severe blockage of lymph drainage from a limb?
lymphedema
where do lymphocytes reside?
tissues
On average how long can lymphocytes survive?
4 years
what is the production of lymphocytes called?
lymphopoiesis
what are the three classes fo circulating lymphocytes?
T cells, B cells, NK cells
which cells are thymus-dependent and isolated by blood thymus barrier
T cells
which cells are bone marrow derived and involve stromal cells
B cells
which cells are bone marrow derived
NK cells
When do T cells differentiate?
when exposed to several thymic hormones
when do B cells differentiate?
when exposed to hormone interleukin
what is interleukin and where is it produced
cytokine, produced in bone marrow
T cells make up __ % of circulating lymphocytes
80
What are the 3 types of T cells?
Cytotoxic T cells, Helper T cells, Suppressor T cells
which cells identify and attack foreign cells of pathogens and cells infected by viruses
cytotoxic T cells
which cells stimulate the function of immune cells?
Helper T cells
which cells help immune response along?
Helper T cells
what are the 3 things regulatory T cells regulate?
immune system function. activity of immune cells, sensitivity or immune response
B cells make up ___% of circulating lymphocytes
10-15
what do B cells do?
differentiate into plasma cells and make antibodies
What are antibodies>
Immunoglobin proteins
how do antibodies recognize specific antigens?
chemical targets
What is another name for NK cells
large granular lymphocytes
what are NK cells responsible for?
immunological surveillance
NK will detect and attack any _________ __________ _________
foreign cells, virus infected cells, and cancer cells
What kind of tissue makes up a lymphoid nodule?
Areolar tissue
what are the 5 tonsils?
palatines, pharyngeal, lingual tonsils
what does the thymus produce?
thymosins
what is the purpose of the thymus?
development of immunological defenses
what monitors blood for damaged or infected cells?
spleen
what do lymph nodes remove?
debris, pathogens, antigens
when is the thymus the largest?
infants
what are the 3 major functions of the spleen?
removal or abnormal cells, storage of recycled iron, initiates immune responses
what contains many red blood cells and many macrophages?
red pulp
what resembles lymphoid nodules and has many leukocytes
white pulp
what are the 7 types of nonspecific defenses?
1. physical barriers 2. phagocytic cells 3. immunological surveillance 4. interferons 5. complement 6. inflammation 7. fever
what are the 2 types of secretions of physical barriers?
ones that flush away materials and ones that kill microorganisms
what are secretions that flush away materials?
sweat, urine, mucus
what are secretions that kill or inhibit microorganisms
enzymes, antibodies, and stomach acid
what are the 2 classes of phagocytes
macrophages and microphages
what are examples of microphages
neutrophils and eosinophils
what are macrophages derived from?
monocytes
what are the 3 ways macrophages respond to pathoges
engulf them, bind to it, release toxic chemicals
what is another name for a fixed macrophage?
histiocytes
describe a fixed macrophage
stays in specific tissues or organs
where are microglia found
Central nervous system
where are Kupffer cells found
liver sinusoids
describe free macrophages
travel through the blood stream
are NK cells selective or nonselective?
nonselective
vesicles release _____
perforin
________ are proteins
interferons
chemical messengers released by tissue cells to coordinate local activities and act as hormones to affect whole body are called _______
interferons
what do interferons trigger?
production of antiviral proteins in normal cells
What are the three types of interferons?
alpha, beta, gamma
which interferons are produced by leukocytes
Alpha
which interferons stimulate NK cells
Alpha
which interferon is secreted by fibroblasts
Beta
which interferon is secreted by T cells and NK cells
Gamma
which interferon stimulates macrophage activity
Gamma
What is triggered by any stimulus that kills cells or injures tissue
imflammation
swelling is
tumor
redness is
rubor
heat is
calor
pain is
dolor
what 3 things do injured cells release?
prostaglandins, proteins, potassium ions
what 2 things do mast cells release
histamine and heparin
inflammation increases ______
blood flow
_________ form scar tissue
fibroblasts
local tissue destruction in area of injury
necrosis
mixture of debris and necrotic tissue
pus
pus accumulated in an enclosed space
abscess
what induces fever
pyrogens
what are the 4 major properties of immunity
specificity, versatility, memory, tolerance
activated by and responds to a specific antifen
specificity
ready to confront any antigen at any time
versatility
"remembers" any antigen it has encountered
memory