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What are the 4 functions of the lymphatic system

return lymph to general circulation, produce maintain and distribute lymphocytes, monitor for pathogens, resist infection and disease

What are the 4 organizations of the lymphatic system?

lymph, lymphatic vessels, lymphoid tissues and organs, lymphocytes

what is a fluid similar to plasma?


Does lymph have plasma proteins?


what is a network that carries lymph from peripheral tissues to the venous system?


what respond to environmental pathogens and toxins abnormal cells, cancers and disease?

lymphocytes and phagocytes

which defense blocks and attacks any potential infectious organisms and cannot distinguish one attack from another

nonspecific defenses

lymphocytes are part of which defense system?

specific defense

where are lymphocytes produced?

lymphoid tissues, lymphoid organs and in red bone marrow

how do lymphocytes travel?

through blood and lymph

what transports lipids form the digestive tract?

lymphatic lacteals

where does the thoracic duct empty?

left subclavian vein

where does the lymphatic duct empty

right subclavian vein

what happens when there is severe blockage of lymph drainage from a limb?


where do lymphocytes reside?


On average how long can lymphocytes survive?

4 years

what is the production of lymphocytes called?


what are the three classes fo circulating lymphocytes?

T cells, B cells, NK cells

which cells are thymus-dependent and isolated by blood thymus barrier

T cells

which cells are bone marrow derived and involve stromal cells

B cells

which cells are bone marrow derived

NK cells

When do T cells differentiate?

when exposed to several thymic hormones

when do B cells differentiate?

when exposed to hormone interleukin

what is interleukin and where is it produced

cytokine, produced in bone marrow

T cells make up __ % of circulating lymphocytes


What are the 3 types of T cells?

Cytotoxic T cells, Helper T cells, Suppressor T cells

which cells identify and attack foreign cells of pathogens and cells infected by viruses

cytotoxic T cells

which cells stimulate the function of immune cells?

Helper T cells

which cells help immune response along?

Helper T cells

what are the 3 things regulatory T cells regulate?

immune system function. activity of immune cells, sensitivity or immune response

B cells make up ___% of circulating lymphocytes


what do B cells do?

differentiate into plasma cells and make antibodies

What are antibodies>

Immunoglobin proteins

how do antibodies recognize specific antigens?

chemical targets

What is another name for NK cells

large granular lymphocytes

what are NK cells responsible for?

immunological surveillance

NK will detect and attack any _________ __________ _________

foreign cells, virus infected cells, and cancer cells

What kind of tissue makes up a lymphoid nodule?

Areolar tissue

what are the 5 tonsils?

palatines, pharyngeal, lingual tonsils

what does the thymus produce?


what is the purpose of the thymus?

development of immunological defenses

what monitors blood for damaged or infected cells?


what do lymph nodes remove?

debris, pathogens, antigens

when is the thymus the largest?


what are the 3 major functions of the spleen?

removal or abnormal cells, storage of recycled iron, initiates immune responses

what contains many red blood cells and many macrophages?

red pulp

what resembles lymphoid nodules and has many leukocytes

white pulp

what are the 7 types of nonspecific defenses?

1. physical barriers 2. phagocytic cells 3. immunological surveillance 4. interferons 5. complement 6. inflammation 7. fever

what are the 2 types of secretions of physical barriers?

ones that flush away materials and ones that kill microorganisms

what are secretions that flush away materials?

sweat, urine, mucus

what are secretions that kill or inhibit microorganisms

enzymes, antibodies, and stomach acid

what are the 2 classes of phagocytes

macrophages and microphages

what are examples of microphages

neutrophils and eosinophils

what are macrophages derived from?


what are the 3 ways macrophages respond to pathoges

engulf them, bind to it, release toxic chemicals

what is another name for a fixed macrophage?


describe a fixed macrophage

stays in specific tissues or organs

where are microglia found

Central nervous system

where are Kupffer cells found

liver sinusoids

describe free macrophages

travel through the blood stream

are NK cells selective or nonselective?


vesicles release _____


________ are proteins


chemical messengers released by tissue cells to coordinate local activities and act as hormones to affect whole body are called _______


what do interferons trigger?

production of antiviral proteins in normal cells

What are the three types of interferons?

alpha, beta, gamma

which interferons are produced by leukocytes


which interferons stimulate NK cells


which interferon is secreted by fibroblasts


which interferon is secreted by T cells and NK cells


which interferon stimulates macrophage activity


What is triggered by any stimulus that kills cells or injures tissue


swelling is


redness is


heat is


pain is


what 3 things do injured cells release?

prostaglandins, proteins, potassium ions

what 2 things do mast cells release

histamine and heparin

inflammation increases ______

blood flow

_________ form scar tissue


local tissue destruction in area of injury


mixture of debris and necrotic tissue


pus accumulated in an enclosed space


what induces fever


what are the 4 major properties of immunity

specificity, versatility, memory, tolerance

activated by and responds to a specific antifen


ready to confront any antigen at any time


"remembers" any antigen it has encountered


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