He never stopped fighting for tolerance, reason, freedom of religion, and freedom of speech.
This philosophe's masterful use of satire got him into frequent trouble with the clergy, the aristocracy, and the government of France.
Charles de Montesquieu
Believed that the separation of powers would keep a society in balance. Invented checks and balances
His two ideas became the basis of the US constitution. France, US, Latin Americans use them in new constitution
He was incredibly passionate about individual freedom. He believed in direct democracy. Argued that all people are equal and that titles of nobility should be abolished. He also had very specific ideas on education, and the place of women in society.
His ideas inspired French into overthrowing their monarch.
His idea was the abolishment of torture and capital punishment. He believed laws existed to preserve social order, not to avenge crimes.
His ideas affected criminal law firm in Europe and in the US.
Argued that women, like men, need education to become virtuous and useful. She urged women to enter male dominated fields of medicine and politics.
Her ideas caused a women's rights group to form in Europe and in North America.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Disagreed with most other philosophes who believed that reason, science, and art improve the lives of all people, and instead argued that civilization corrupts people's natural goodness.
This political thinker felt that people are reasonable beings. He supported self-government and argued that the purpose of government is to protect the natural rights of people. If government fails to protect these natural rights, the citizens will have the right to overthrow it.
This political thinker believed that all humans are naturally selfish and wicked. He argued, therefore, that strong governments are necessary to control human behaviour. To avoid chaos, he said, people enter into a social contract. They give up their rights in exchange for law and order.
The new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of the individual to solve problems was the________
The willingness of people to hand over their rights to a ruler in exchange for law and order in society was called the _________
The philosopher who believed that all people are born free and equal, with the rights to life, liberty, and property was _________
Brilliant French satirist who frequently targeted the clergy, the aristocracy, and the government was _______
An influential French writer who wrote that "Power should be a check to power" was ________
French philosophe Jean Jacques Rousseau believed that the best form of government would be a _______
Thinkers of the Enlightenment; Wanted to educate the socially elite, but not the masses; were not allowed to openly criticize church or state, so used satire and double-meaning in their writings to avoid being banned; Salons held by wealthy women also kept philosophes safe; They considered themselves part of an intellectual community, and wrote back and forth to each other to share ideas.
gatherings in which intellectual and political ideas were exchanged during the Enlightenment
People have the natural right to rule themselves because they are capable of using their powers of reason to understand their world
Candide Letters Concerning the English Nation Treatise on Toleration The Philosophical Dictionary
Works of Voltaire
Work pioneered by Denis Diderot
Vindication of the Rights of Women
Work by Mary Wollstonecraft
What is Enlightenment?
Work by Immanuel Kant
Booklet by Thomas Paine
Social Contract Emile or On Education
Works of Rousseau
On Crimes and Punishments
Wealth of Nations
Frederick the Great
King of Prussia 1740 - 1786 *military victories *reorganization of Prussian armies *patronage of the arts and the Enlightenment in Prussia
Catherine the Great
Russian Tsar who ruled after the death of her husband Peter III and Patronized the Enlightenment Philosophes despite making few reforms based on enlightenment principles.
Joseph II of Austria
Most Radical and Least Effective of the Enlightened Despots
monarchs inspired by the enlightenment who embrace rationality. Most enlightened monarchs fostered education and allowed religious tolerance, freedom of speech, and the right to hold private property to their subjects.
Natural Religion, the idea that god created a rational universe based on natural law and does not intervene.
the philosophical principle of applying Newton's methods in a variety of fields (helped lead to the enlightenment)