95 terms


This was the royal dynasty of Austria that ruled over a vast part of Central Europe while battling with the Turks over Hungary
charles 5
Spain holy roman emperor, closely conected to catholic church. sighned peace of ausburg gave each german prince right to decide weather state was catholic or protestant . almost went bankrupt claimed land in america
battle of mohacs
a battle between the Ottomans led by Suleyman the Magnificent and the King of Hungary and his troops. The outcome was: Suleyman capturing Belgrade and killed/defeated the king of Hungary.
phillip 2
spanish catholic absolute ruler who had divine right of kings and wanted to protect the catholic church; biggest enemy was protestant queen Elizabeth 1 of england
Built between 1563 and 1584, this palace held elaborate religious ceremonies. These ceremonies were to uphold the sanctity of the throne. Authority, social heirarchy, and order radiated from this palace through spain and to other parts of Phillip II's empire.
absolute monarchy
Concept of government developed during rise of nation-states in Western Europe during the 17th century; featured monarchs who passed laws without parliaments, appointed professionalized armies and bureaucracies, established state churches, and imposed state economic policies.
divine right
Belief that a ruler's authority comes directly from god.
battle of lepanto
(1571) Spain defeated the Turkish navy off the coast of Greece-ended Ottoman threat in Mediterranean, Turkish sea power was destroyed in 1571 by a league of Christian nations organized by the Pope
spanish armada
"Invincible" group of ships sent by King Philip II of Spain to invade England in 1588; Armada was defeated by smaller, more maneuverable English "sea dogs" in the Channel; marked the beginning of English naval dominance and fall of Spanish dominance.
golden age of spain
1500 - 1600. Newfound wealth from American explorations bring in high point of Spanish military might, art and culture.
el greco
Spanish painter (born in Greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human forms and dramatic use of color (1541-1614) agony in the garden
miguel de cervantes
Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form (1547-1616)
henry 4
hugenot prince who became king and converted to catholicism to avoid conflict, granted hugenots religious toleration and other freedoms with the edict of nantes. paris is worth a mass!
Converts or adherents to Calvinism in France, including many from the French nobility wishing to challenge the authority of the Catholic monarch. Also known as French Protestants.
st bartholomew's day massacre
1572. The targeted group of assasinations of French Calvinist Protestants (Hugenots). Effectively solidified Roman Catholicism in France after eliminating the last main bastion of power of the Hugenots in the French Aristocracy. henry 4 had something to do with this
edict of nantes
1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants
cardinal Armand richelieu
Was appointed as chief minister in 1624 by Henry IV's son, Louis XIII. He was a cunning, capable leader who spent the next 18 years strengthening the central government. He sought to destroy the power of the Huguenots and nobles, two groups that did not bow to royal authority.
cardinal mazarin
(1602-1661), Successor of Cardinal Richelieu and his bad attempts to increase royal revenue and the state lead to the Fronde; ran the government while Louis VIII was still a child. , This was the man who served under Cardinal Richelieu and laid the foundations for Louis XIV's expansionist policies.
(1602-1661), Successor of Cardinal Richelieu and his bad attempts to increase royal revenue and the state lead to the Fronde; ran the government while Louis VIII was still a child
louis 14
French king from 1643-1715; created absolutism in France and made it by far the most powerful country in all of Europe. sun king, fat french greedy guy.
1648-53. Brutal civil wars that struck France during the reign of Louis XIV. Caused political upheaval and economic devastation.
royal officials sent by Richelieu to execute orders of central government in the provinces. Their growth in power causes conflict with provincial governors. Intendants normally win = strength of government
jean baptiste colbert
An economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France., financial minister for Louis XIV, furthered prosperity by promoting good farming methods, building roads and canals (infrastructure), promoted existing industries with tariffs, aided new industries with subsidies, and increased mercantilism by establishing French trading posts in India and North American colonies
A palace built for Louis XIV near the town of Versailles, southwest of Paris. It was built around a chateau belonging to Louis XIII, which was transformed by additions in the grand French classical style. twas a hunting shack before.
1. raised bank of a river; 2. morning reception held by a monarch
war of spanish succession
(1701-1714) Resulted from Louis XIV being offered the Spanish throne. All of Europe attacked France in this war., 1701 - 1713 Caused when Charles II of Spain leaves Spanish empire/crown to Philip of Anjou (Louis XIV of France's grandson)
balance of power
The policy in international relations by which, beginning in the eighteenth century, the major European states acted together to prevent any one of them from becoming too powerful.
revocation of edict of nantes
part of Louis XIV's efforts to have France have only one religion, he closed Huguenots churches and schools, banned all their public activities, and exiled those who refused to embrace the state religion
English royal family, dynasty founded by Henry VII; includes some of England's most influential monarchs; Elizabeth
A governing body during the Middle Ages that represented the privileged groups including the nobles and the church
(Stuart Dynasty)- the family that ruled England after Queen Elizabeth 1 (Tutor) died with no heir, started with James I of Scotland (always feuded with Parliament over debts and money)
james 1
He helped force the Puritans and Pilgrims from England by trying to force them to conform to the conservative views of the Church of England.
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
In the social and religious history of England and Wales, it refers particularly to a member of a religious body in England or Wales who has separated from the Established Church.
charles 1
Enforced Divine Right. Bring more Absolutist policies to England .Also brought too much Catholic influence. Tried and Executed in 1649 as a "tyrant,traitor, murderer, and public enemy"
petition of rights
1628, A legal petition sent to King Charles I from Parliament complaining about the breeches in the law; Foreshadowed later colonial petitions for rights.
william laud
Archbishop of Canterbury under Charles I in England. He tried to force the Scottish to use the English Book of Common Prayer. He was later executed by Parliament during the English Civil War.
long parliament
(1640-1648) desperate for money after Scottish invasion of northern England-Charles finally agreed to demands by Parliament: Parliament could not be dissolved w/o its own consent; had to meet a min. of once every 3 years; ship money abolished; leaders of persecution of Puritans to be tried and executed; Star Chamber abolished; common law courts supreme to king's courts; refused funds to raise army to defeat Irish revolt-Puritans came to represent majority in Parliament
english civil war
Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king, (1642-1651) Armed conflict between royalists and parliamentarians, resulting in a victory of Pro-Parliament forces and the execution of Charles I.
oliver cromwell
..., English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
During period of Commonwealth Cromwell faced extremists in all diretions - each with own remedies for country. Levellers(in later times would have been called advanced politicals democrats) were numerous in Puritan army. Spokesman John Lilburne, appealed to natural rights of Englishmen. Asked for a nearly universal manhood suffrace, equality of representation, a written constitution, and subordination of Parliament to a reformed body of voters. (Anticipated many ideas of Am. Fr. Revs.)
stuart restoration
reestablishment of monarchy in the person of Charles II, the son of Charles I, after Cromwell's death. It temporarily ended England's troubles. King Charles II was restored to the throne.
charles 2
was king of England, Scotland, and Ireland. He also was known for leaving the Puritan Church and starting the Anglican Church or the Church of England
james 2
1685-1688: imposed catholicism, violated test act, wrote new Decl of Indulgence that repealed old one, ----> Catholic son would succeed him = problem , King of England from 1685-1688; he gets kicked out because his son is Catholic and the English don't want that; he is pushed off the throne by William of Orange and he fled to France
william and mary
King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.
english bill of rights
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
toleration act
1689 law passed by Parliament granting some religious freedoms to dissenting Protestants who had broken away from the Anglican Church. However, this prohibited them from holding public office.
limited monarchy
A system of government that emerged in England in which the monarch was made to share power with an elected Parliament.
john locke
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
A member of a British political party, founded in 1689, that was the opposition party to the Whigs and has been known as the Conservative Party since about 1832
..., conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster
Cardinal de Richelieu
prime minister for louis 13th, system of absolute power, founded french academy, reformed finances exc ect.
treaty of utrecht
1713, ended War of Spanish Succession between Louis XIV's France and the rest of Europe; prohibited joining of French and Spanish crowns; ended French expansionist policy; ended golden age of Spain; vastly expanded British Empire
A ruler who suppresses his or her religious designs for his or her kingdom in favor of political expediency. Examples: Elizabeth I (England), Henry IV (France).
louis 13
8 years old when crowned. Sickly when young/relied heavily on mother/advisers who ruled for him. Cardinal Richelieu was main adviser. Wanted to stay out of 30 years war so he could come in at the end and dominate. made the treaty of Westphali
France's greatest victory in the conflicts against the Habsburg Empire during the period 1635-59 came at the Battle of Rocroi (1643), five days after Louis's death, apparently from complications of intestinal tuberculosis. This battle marked the end of Spain's military ascendancy in Europe and foreshadowed French dominance in Europe under Louis XIV, his son and successor.[2]
A European Royal family that is most known for its rule of France from the 16th through the 18th centuries., A major European royal family that included the kings of France before the Revolution, as well as the royal family of Spain and other countries (like Naples) in Europe. After Napoleon was deposed, Louis XVIII (A Bourbon) was installed on the throne.
cavaliers vs roundheads
When Charles I asked Parliment for funds for an army in Scotland and was declined, he invaded parliment with his supporters known as the Cavaliers who fought against the Parlimentary forces known as the Roundheads. those who possessed heads that happened to be round eventually won.
thomas hobbes
..., English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
A book written by Thomas Hobbes describing his theory that an absolute government was the only means of balancing human interests and desires with their rights of life and property.
treatise on government
there is an informal contract between a ruler and those that he governs and whenever life, liberty, and property is threaten. The people have a right to rebel and get a new ruler., a book written by john locke where he explained his ideas about natural rights. locke believed the main purpose of government is to protect the natural rights of life, liberty and property.
prime minister
the person who is head of state (in several countries)
robert walpole
Englishman and Whig statesman who (under George I) was effectively the first British prime minister (1676-1745), Britain's first prime minister.. by accident. When the South Seas Company stock market crashed, he managed to save not only the SSC but also the East India Company and the Bank of England. He developed the idea of the "sinking fund", which required the government to regularly set aside money in order to pay interest they owed to shareholders. This increased England's credit, which led to more shareholders and now England's debt was felt nationally, as opposed to the situation in France. He sponsored the Bank, the trading companies and financial interests and they supported him back. He kept land taxes down and always assured himself support from the House of Commons by avoiding issues he knew he would lose on. In addition, he began to select his 'cabinet' selectively and managed to keep England out of war until the War of Jenkin's Ear with Spain.
A form of government in which a small group of landowners, military officers, or wealthy merchants controls most of the governing decisions.
A political system where the state, usually under the power of a single political person, faction, or class, recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible. see, that last part is important. "wherever feasible." that means that the ruler is restricted in some way, such as by religion, a supervisor, a small group of other guys, or maybe a resistance of some sort.
thirty years war
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.`
Holy roman emperor Ferdinand 2
The future Holy Roman emperor was head of the Hapsburg family. As such, he ruled the Czech kingdom of Bohemia. The Protestants in Bohemia did not trust Ferdinand, who was a foreigner and a Catholic. When he closed some Protestant churches, the Protestants revolted. Ferdinand sent an army into Bohemia to crush the revolt. Several German Protestant princes took this chance to challenge their Catholic emperor. He paid his army of 125,000 men by allowing them to plunder, or rob, German villages. This huge army destroyed everything in its path.
phases of the 30 years war
Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, French/International
bohemian phase
First phase of war. Started by defenestration of Prague. guy threw other guy out window. Frederic was protestant, chose religion throw peace of Augsburg. Ferdinand the second was cathloc and soon to become holy roman emperor, revoked peace of augsberg. charged in and took all their stuff. The phase ended at the battle of "white mountain.", (1618-1625) 1st phase of Thirty Years' War
danish phase
Happened from 1625-1629, it began when Christian IV of Denmark helped Lutheran rulers of Lower Saxony lead an army against imperial forces. Ferdinand II employed the military help of Albrecht von Wallenstein, who had an army ranging from 30,000-100,000 men, to fight off the Lutheran armies. The army was way too powerful for the Lutherans and they were defeated quickly, and then Wallenstein's army continued marching north, occupying Mecklenburg and Jutland. It was concluded in 1629 by the treaty of Lubeck, which allowed Christian IV to keep his control of Denmark, if he abandoned his support for the Protestant German states.
Swedish phase
Gustavus Adolphus (Swedish King) enters war for money. Ferdinand calls Imperial Diet. Richelieu backs Adolphus, Adolphus gains momentum. Adolphus dies, Swedes beaten at Battle of Nordlingen., The third phase of the Thirty Years' War when Sweden came into the war under Gustavus Adolphus. The Protestants began to defeat the Catholics. The Edict of Restitution was revoked and the Peace of Prague replaced it., 1630-1635
peace of prague
1635, German Protestant states, led by Saxony, reached a compromise agreement with Ferdinand. It repealed the Edict of Restitution and guaranteed amnesty for all who fought against the Hapsburgs. The Swedes refused to join in this agreement.
french phase
The fourth and final period of the Thirty Years' War marked by France's entrance into the war on the side of the Protestants; this gave the Protestants the support needed to defeat the Catholics., (1635-1648) 4th phase of Thirty Years' War
peace of Westphalia
(1648) is the collective name for two treaties ending the Thirty Years' War that were signed by the Holy Roman Empire, minor German states, Spain, France, Sweden, and the Dutch Republic. It confirmed the principle of "cuius regio eius religio" (that a ruler's religion determined that of his country) introduced by the Peace of Augsburg, but mandated relative tolerance of other (Christian) faiths. It adjusted the borders of German states and strengthened their princes with respect to the Emperor and transferred most of Lorraine and some of Alsace to France.
A powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain.
holy roman emperor leopold
Holy Roman emperor, King of Hungary (1657-1705), King of Bohemia. He was an absolutist ruler, fought with the French for the European hegemony, supressed the estates all over his empire. He was characterised by counter-reformation, anti-protestant policy which was mostly successful, however in Hungary it could not be fully implemented. The Wesselényi-uprising, the bujdosó movement, and the Thököly-uprising (1678-1685), the Tokaj Hegyalja uprising and the Rákóczi uprising all appeared as a result of his policies. He managed to make Hungary a hereditary province (diet of Pozsony, 1687) and liberated Hungary from the Turks except for the Temesköz (1799 peace of Karlowitz), inviting Serbians for the military protection of the south (Diploma Leopoldium, 1691).
Charles 5 (the other guy)
the holy roman emperor ruledan immense empire consisting of spain and its colonies ,the austrlian land, bohmia, hungary, the low countries, the dutch of milan in northern italy ,and the kingdom of italy
pragmatic sanction
This was the act passed by Charles VI that stated that Hapsburg possessions were never to be divided, in order to allow his daughter to be ruler
maria theresa
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
war of Austrian succession
(1740-48)Conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of the Habsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and archduke of Austria, many of the European powers had guaranteed that Charles's daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him.
Austrian province in eastern Germany that is later seized by Frederick II of Prussia in December of 1740, provoking the War of the Austrian Succession.
German royal family who ruled Brandenburg from 1415 and later extended their control to Prussia (1525). Under Frederick I (ruled 1701-1713) the family's possessions were unified as the kingdom of Prussia.
A former kingdom in north-central Europe including present-day northern Germany and northern Poland
Frederic William
Prussia leader, Prussian ruler who came to power upon the death of his father in 1713. He gained the favor of the nobles while decreasing their independence (to increase his own power) and forged one of the best trained armies in Europe. By 1740 they were strong enough to challenge Austria.
Members of the Prussian landed aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political reaction and militarism.
frederic the great
put tight control over subjects during reign of Prussia; belief he worked for common good; reforms directed at making Prussian gov. more efficient through reorganizing civil service and simplified laws
great power rivalries 18
-International environment becomes much more difficult and dangerous after the period of 1870 because of the political and economic development of the Great Powers on the European continent (creation of Germany) and off the continent (Germany gets colonies)
peter the great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg.
times of troubles
Dmitrii, son of Czar Theodore, dies at a young age and doesn't produce another heir. Boris Godunov takes over. Rumors that Dmitrii is alive begin and Dmitrii shows up one day claiming to be the true heir to the throne. Boyers kick Godunov out and false Dmitrii rules for a short period before they kick him out too.
Michael Romanov was elected the new hereditary tsar in 1613 of Russia. Michael's election was a real restoration, and his reign saw the gradual reestablishment of tsarist autocracy. The Romanovs brought about total enserfment of the people, while the military obligations on the nobility were relaxed considerably. Nobility gained more exemptions from the military service, while the peasants were further ground down. (581)
Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts
great northern war
Broke out as Peter attacked Sweden(with assistance from Poland and Denmark) in his quest to establish a Russian trading port on the Baltic. After being routed initially, Peter re-organized his army on the western model and eventually gained Estonia, Livonia, and Karella on the Baltic. War is decided with the Battle of Poltava, but ends with the Peace of Mystadt in 1721. Sweden becomes a second-rate power after the war.
st petersburg
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweeden
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.) but he's thought of as a bacically allright guy if you know what i mean, someone who holds tons of power yes but uses it for the people
catherine the great
(1729-1796) Empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire, its wealth & education/benefits for people; inspired by French Enlightenment; wife of Peter III; Emelian Pugachev ruled with her after Peter's "death" deethpostossaopifha
partition of poland
Division of Polish territory among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as independent state; part of expansion of Russian influence in eastern Europe.