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Acidosis vs. Alkalosis

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Acidosis Causes
Respiratory: slow shallow respirations (drugs), respiratory congestion
Metabolic: shock, diabetic ketoacidosis, renal failure, diarrhea
Alkalosis Causes
Respiratory: hyperventilation (anxiety, aspirin overdose)
Metabolic: Vomiting (early stage), excessive antacid intake
Acidosis Effect
Respiratory: increased Pco2
Metabolic: decreased serum bicarbonate ion
Alkalosis Effect
Respiratory: decreased Pco2
Metabolic: increased serum bicarbonate ion
Acidosis Compensation
Respiratory: kidneys excrete more hydrogen ion and reabsorb more bicarbonate
Metabolic: rapid, deep respirations, kidneys excrete more acid and increase bicarbonate absorption
Alkalosis Compensation
Respiratory: kidneys excrete less hydrogen ion and reabsorb less bicarbonate
Metabolic: Slow, shallow respirations, kidneys excrete less acid and decrease bicarbonate absorption
Acidosis Lab Values
Respiratory: Elevated Pco2, elevated serum bicarbonate, compensated-serum pH=7.35 to 7.4, decompensated-serum pH <7.33
Metabolic: low serum bicarbonate, low Pco2, compensated-serum pH=7.35 to 7.4, decompensated-serum pH<7.33
Alkalosis Lab Values
Respiratory: low Pco2, low serum bicarbonate, compensated-serum pH=7.4 to 7.45, decompensated-serum pH>7.47
Metabolic: elevated serum bicarbonate, elevated Pco2, compensated-serum pH=7.4 to 7.45, decompensated-serum pH>7.47