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Acidosis Causes

Respiratory: slow shallow respirations (drugs), respiratory congestion
Metabolic: shock, diabetic ketoacidosis, renal failure, diarrhea

Alkalosis Causes

Respiratory: hyperventilation (anxiety, aspirin overdose)
Metabolic: Vomiting (early stage), excessive antacid intake

Acidosis Effect

Respiratory: increased Pco2
Metabolic: decreased serum bicarbonate ion

Alkalosis Effect

Respiratory: decreased Pco2
Metabolic: increased serum bicarbonate ion

Acidosis Compensation

Respiratory: kidneys excrete more hydrogen ion and reabsorb more bicarbonate
Metabolic: rapid, deep respirations, kidneys excrete more acid and increase bicarbonate absorption

Alkalosis Compensation

Respiratory: kidneys excrete less hydrogen ion and reabsorb less bicarbonate
Metabolic: Slow, shallow respirations, kidneys excrete less acid and decrease bicarbonate absorption

Acidosis Lab Values

Respiratory: Elevated Pco2, elevated serum bicarbonate, compensated-serum pH=7.35 to 7.4, decompensated-serum pH <7.33
Metabolic: low serum bicarbonate, low Pco2, compensated-serum pH=7.35 to 7.4, decompensated-serum pH<7.33

Alkalosis Lab Values

Respiratory: low Pco2, low serum bicarbonate, compensated-serum pH=7.4 to 7.45, decompensated-serum pH>7.47
Metabolic: elevated serum bicarbonate, elevated Pco2, compensated-serum pH=7.4 to 7.45, decompensated-serum pH>7.47

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