Simsbury Seniors AP Psychology Social Psychology


Terms in this set (...)

Social Psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
Attribution Theory
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
Fundamental Attribution Error
-the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
-also called "actor-observer bias"
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
Central Route Persuasion
attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
Peripheral Route Persuasion
attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
make a larger request first in the hopes that a smaller request seems reasonable
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
Leon Festinger's Cognitive Dissonance Theory
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
Normative Social Influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
Informal Social Influence
influence resulting in one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
Social Facilitation
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
Social Loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
Group Polarization
the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within a group
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
An understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior.
Personal Space
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
"Us"-- people with whom we share a common identity
"Them"-- those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup
Ingroup Bias
the tendency to favor our own group
Scapegoat Theory
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
Other-Race Effect
The tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias.
Just-World Phenomenon
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
Frustration-Aggression Principle
the principle that frustration-- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-- creates anger, which can generate aggression
Mere Exposure Effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
Passionate Love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
Companionate Love
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
Bystander Effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Social Exchange Theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
Reciprocity Norm
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
Social-Responsibility Norm
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
Social Trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
Mirror-Image Perceptions
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
a belief that leads to its own fulfillment
Superordinate Goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction-- a strategy designed to decrease international tensions
Self-Serving Bias
success attributed to internal factors; failure attributed to external factors
Defense Attributions
More responsibility attributed to the perpetrator when personal characteristics are similar to the victim
Three Components of Attitude
cognitive, behavioral, affective
Daryl Bem's Self-Perception Theory
behavioral change... leads to change in perception of self... which changes cognition/affect (different from the traditional attitude change explanation because behavioral change comes before cognitive change)
Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love
Passion, commitment, intimacy (all three components = consummate love)