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Plant Morphology Test 3
Plant Morphology Test 3
Terms in this set (53)
collection of tightly clustered leaves
Strobili bears _____.
Sporangium (w/ spores)
Strobili leaves that bear sporangium are _____.
Strobilus is a _____.
A cone/entire collection of leaves
Layer of cells around the sporangium is _____.
Secretory tapetum provides _____.
nutrients for developing spores
Family Lycopodiaceae have 2 genera: _____ & _____
Lycopodium & Huperzia
Lycopodium do/do not have strobili?
Huperzia do/do not have strobili?
resemble miniature conifers
evergreen, short, close to ground
mostly tropical but are temperate & arctic species
advantageous roots (roots that don't arise from embryo)
root branching can be dichotomous or monopodial
Lycopodiaceae common name:
Lycopodiaceae underground stem is known as _____.
Rhizoids vs Rhizomes
Lycopodium spores have a high _____ content and were used in _____ _____.
_____ _____ gametophytes are green and photosynthetic.
Club moss rhizoids are connected with _____.
Endomycorrhizae help _____ , protect _____, are _____ by the _____.
absorb nutrients and water
against microorganism attack
white, non-photosynthetic, subterranean
also mycorrhizae partners
**only ~10% have gametophytes found -> some rarely form gametophytes & stick to asexual reproduction through plantlets
Family Selaginellaceae common name:
very little overlap of leaves
tend to live on forest floors -> less sun
bluish iridescence -> helps capture light
roots have dichotomous branching
most frequent in tropical
in deserts (SW US, ex. Texas, Mexico, Peru)
Family Isoetaceae common name:
ponds, streams, worldwide but uncommon
microphylls even though larger - up to 15 cm
they are hollow
base of microphylls & megasporangia & microsporangia
Carboniferous 325 mya -> period of peak
Diversity & size of lycopodiophytes
Trees up to 40m high
ex. Lepidodendron -long trunk without branches
-each has a single midrib
ex. Sigillaria "battle brush" tree
Monilophyta Class Psilotopsida AKA
2 genera of Psilotopsida:
Psilotum & Tmesipteris
Psilotum grow in _____.
lava fields, rich soils, among rocks
Tmesipteris grow in _____.
south pacific (5-10cm)
Psilotum are "_____."
In _____, only the stem in the sporophyte has vascular tissue.
In _____, they have no true roots or leaves.
Enations, Synangia = 3 fused sporangia, yellow when mature, green when immature, gametophyte - bisexual, has vascular tissue, only 2mm long, non-ps, mycorrhizal fungi
Rhizome has a symbiosis with mycorrizae, has short rhizoids
Class Equisetopsida AKA
There are 15-25 species of _____.
Only one extant genus Equisetum of _____.
temperate zone plants, ditches, desert creeks, roadsides, railway embankments, along streams, on all continents ex. Antarctica
Some produce 2 shoots 1 green, _____ and one brown _____.
-water needed for fertilization
more diverse and large in Carboniferous
still strong internode/node
branches in whorls
(Ferns) Two types of Sporangia:
Single layered pinna, less spores, from one cell, thin stalk
Multi-layered pinna, more spores, from multiple cells, no/massive stalk
Both have secreting tapetum
Order _____ of class Psilotopsida
diverged early from other ferns
Ophioglossum 2 genera:
Ophioglossum "adder's tongue fern", 1 fertile frond,1 leaf, old fields and meadows and cedar glades, (Ophioglossum reticulatum has most chromosomes of any plant, 1260)
Botrychium "grape fern", shady forest floors
eusporangiate, homosporous, all tropical, ancient group, back to carboniferous
leptosporangiate, homosporous, in GA, a fern with >1 leaf and not floating on water, has sori
cluster of sporangia on the underside of a pinna
flap of tissue protecting a young sorus, start green, dry with time, brown shrivel, marginal, cup shaped, exindusiate
one annulus cell, thick walls on 3 sides, thin one at side, dead at maturity, evap pulls side walls together
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