PS 354 (Psychology of Criminal Justice) Midterm 1
Quiz questions from Chapters 1 & 3
Terms in this set (53)
How has the rate of serious crime changed in recent years?
It has decreased steadily since 1994.
According to Chapter 3, juveniles are responsible for committing about _______ of
According to Chapter 3, Jeffrey Dahmer's crimes can be explained by which theory of
No existing theory adequately explains his crimes.
Those within the classical school of criminology believed which of the following with regard to punishment?
The punishment should fit the crime.
The positivist school of criminology focuses on
factors that determine criminal behavior.
With regard to punishment, positivists believe which of the following?
Punishment should fit the criminal rather than the crime.
Cloward and Ohlin, in their book Delinquency and Opportunity, propose a ___________
theory of crime.
Anomie is best defined as
a feeling of normlessness that often precedes suicide and crime.
Which of the following would not be defined as a rational crime?
murder of a spouse's lover
If the monozygotic concordance rate is significantly higher than the dizygotic rate, one
typically concludes that the behavior is
Research suggests that genetic factors influence criminal behavior. (T/F)
Children identified as bullies typically
become punitive parents.
Raine et al. (1998) found that murderers, compared to normal controls, experienced
excessive activity in four brain structures.
Which of the following physiological factors have been stated as potentially leading to
increased aggressiveness and delinquency?
increased secretion of insulin
low levels of serotonin
What percentage of psychopaths are men?
Which of the following has been cited as potentially causing psychopathic behavior?
a deficiency to the left hemisphere that impairs executive function
low autonomic arousal which generated a need for simulation
One explanation for psychopathy is that psychopaths were raised in a dysfunctional
family. Which of the following represents the implicated parental pattern(s)?
parents who are cold+distant
parents who are overly punitive
Researchers have found a positive association between high levels of _______ and increased offending.
Researchers have found that early exposure to violence on television significantly
predicts aggression in adulthood.
According to social‑learning theory, when people use tactics of self‑exoneration, they
are likely to
justify aggression by appealing to higher values
blame the victim for what happened
dehumanize the victims
The Children's Internet Protection Act required libraries that receive federal funding to
use anti‑pornography filtering software.
Which amendment to the U.S. Constitution safeguards us against self‑incrimination?
Edward Rosenheimer was charged with a hit‑and‑run accident, but he claimed that the
law requiring him to report the accident to the police was unconstitutional because it
forced him to incriminate himself, violating the U.S. ConstitutionÂ s Fifth Amendment.
This case eventually came before the New York Court of Appeals; what was this court's decision?
The New York Court of Appeals concluded that the right to avoid selfincrimination
did not outweigh the right of injured persons to seek redress
Most of the Supreme Court decisions that provided more explicit rights for suspects and defendants occurred
during the 1960s
The Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren __________________, while the
Supreme Court under Chief Justices Warren Burger and William Rehnquist
expanded the rights for those suspected of breaking the law; frequently ruled in favor of the police
The original purpose of the RICO laws was to
combat organized crime and its intrusion into legitimate businesses.
Currently, the U.S. incarcerates ___ of every 100,000 citizens.
The "three‑strikes" laws are a reflection of which model of the criminal justice system?
crime control model
Under the "three‑strikes" laws, a defendant can be sentenced to 25 years to life in
prison on a third conviction if
if their first two convictions were for serious or violent crimes.
One study found that for those who were convicted under a three‑strikes law, the third
crime was most often
a non‑violent offense.
The principle of proportionality reflects the idea that
the defendant's punishment should be related to the severity of the offense.
Despite the principle of equality, discretion is often displayed by
prosecutors, juries & police officers
The tendency of different judges to administer a variety of penalties for the same crime
is referred to as ________; to counteract this, many states have implemented ________.
sentencing disparity; determinate sentencing
Karla Faye Tucker
is one of only ten women to be executed in the U.S. since the death penalty was reinstated in 1976.
Jury nullification refers to
a jury's refusal to convict defendants who are legally guilty, although morally blameless.
What percentage of defendants plea bargain?
Amicus curiae means
friend of the court.
Many believe that the Brown v. Board of Education decision in desegregation reversed
Plessy v. Ferguson
During a train trip in Louisiana in the 1890s, Homer Plessy wanted to sit in a "whites
only" railroad car, but because of his ancestry (he had a black great‑grandparent), he
was not allowed, by law, to sit in this car. He took his claim to court; the U.S. Supreme
Court eventually ruled that
the statute that segregated railroad cars by race did not fail to give Plessy equal protection under the law.
George McLaurin was the first black student admitted to the University of Oklahoma's
graduate school of education. After enrolling in the program, McLaurin was segregated
from his classmates. In McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents (1950), the Supreme Court concluded that
the restrictions set up by the University of Oklahoma impaired and inhibited McLaurin's ability to study, discuss and exchange views with other students.
In order for a person to testify as an expert witness
the judge must agree to admit the testimony.
The Daubert decision listed four factors that judges should consider in assessing the
validity and subsequent admissibility of the expert's testimony. Which of the following
is not one of these four factors?
the strength of the argument for the pertinent side
Social scientists prepared a statement entitled The Effects of Segregation and the
Consequences of Desegregation: A Social Science Statement to accompany the legal
briefs in what important case?
Brown v. Board of Education
The expert witness
is hired by one side, but is supposed to remain impartial.
"Scientific jury selection" by psychologists reflects which role for psychologists?
Tatiana Tarasoff was killed by Prosenjit Poddar, a graduate student at The University of California. Tatiana's parents sued; the case was heard by the Supreme Court of
California. The Tarasoff case is important because
it specified that psychotherapists have a duty to use reasonable care to protect identifiable, potential victims from clients in psychotherapy who threaten violence.
Lester Zygmanik was charged with murdering his brother, George after George was
severely injured in a motorcycle accident. George did not want to live his life as a
quadriplegic and asked Lester to kill him; Lester did as his brother asked. If you were a
juror in this case and you were making decisions based on black letter law, you would decide that Lester is
Lester Zygmanik, who admitted to shooting his brother in the head and killing him
was found not guilty.
Which of the following U.S. states legally allows physician‑assisted suicide?
How does the Model Penal Code assign punishment for crimes that were only
attempted, but were not completed?
Those who commit attempted and completed crimes deserve the same penalty.
Darley and his colleagues investigated how people's general thoughts about
punishment differed from that found in the Model Penal Code. They found that
people did not feel that to intend to do a crime was the same as actually doing the crime
when a person had only taken preliminary action towards a crime, few respondents thought the prospective perpetrator was guilty
when a person had taken action described as reaching the point of dangerous proximity to the crime respondents thought the punishment should be less severe than that given to those who have completed the crime
When making inferences about what caused another person to commit a crime, we tend
to attribute the cause to
internal and stable factors.
Which of the following represents differences between commonsense justice and black
people tend to consider a wider context than law
as compared to law, people tend to take a more subjective view of the actions of the defendant + victim
people, when compared to the law, tend to take a proportional approach to punishment