Initial/main lines of enquiry
Terms in this set (25)
5 stages of SIO theoretical process
Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning
The whole thrust of these enquiries will be:
• searching for the truth
• establishing facts
• determining evidence
• identifying the offender
Areas to consider in the first 24 hours
- Policies made in relation to MO
- Prioritisation of suspects - are they to be circulated?
- H2H enquiries
- Covert operations - RIPA
- Witness protection
- Financial investigation
- Other agencies liaison
- Specialists and experts
This linked to all the other main strategies and significantly to the collection / gathering of evidence, intelligence & information that would or could be lost without some immediate action or coordinated activity. Such as;
Crime scene(s) management & coordination
Travel of suspects / witnesses/ victims
Specialist support (underwater search)
'Fast track' actions
Things you need to do there and then.
- Preservation of life (overrides everything else)
- Preservation of scene - if you need to trash the scene, you do it to preserve life
- Secure evidence - will not always be at the scene
- CIA - community impact assessment
- FIO - family liaison officer
- Media - often there before you
- Identify suspects and victims
'Any investigative actions which, if pursued immediately, are likely to establish important facts , preserve evidence or lead to an early resolution of the investigation'
The enquiries will normally fall into the following categories:
- Behaviour patterns
Victimology a specialist field which may require subsequent support from an expert, early stage should be addressing:
• why was the victim selected?
• significance of location?
• significance of time of death?
Preservation of life
- Coroner informed?
- Forensically aware search
- Cordon is only as good as the staff you have before it
- Identify, secure, protect and control scene
- Specify rendez-vous point
- Sketch plan (in/out scene) which needs to be a common approach path which is unknown or used by others
- Intelligence FTAs
- ID victims
- If dead - extraction method?
- Identify doctors, paramedics in attendance
- Obtain account if conscious and record contemporaneously
Preservation of scene
- Last seen alive, initial contact, attack site, murder site, deposition site and routes in between - number of scenes and specify parameters
- Common approach path - video of scenes for briefing purposes
- Officers at scene to record details
- Identify witnesses and victims (significance)
- Line of sight and sound search - local enquiries
- obtain phone activity
- lateral evidence seizure - bins, CCTV, ANPR, AFR (automatic facial recognition)
- check databases for incidents around the location of the critical incident
- passive data collection
- Do not search the body - wait for someone that is forensically aware
- But this doesn't preclude you from primary function - preservation of life
- Description of clothing/misper checks
- Check with significant witnesses
- Pre-cursor incidents/offences/events
- MO of offender
- Check escape routes
- Consider road checks
- Remember cross contamination
- Restricted circulation - description(s) identity of offender
- Early street identification
- Consider early communications
- Holding statement
- Force media policy - e.g. you will not say 'no comment' because it indicates incompetence or avoidance
- SIO media policy - how the media is to be interacted with and what you don't say
- Consider early engagement with victim's family - early rather than later
- Officer in Charge or SIO may appoint a Family Liaison Officer (FLO)
No-one goes home without being de-briefed
- Last seen alive
- Initial 'contact'
- 'Attack' site or transportation to move body
- Murder site
- Body deposition site
- Arrest site
- Remember - routes
As the term says; the way in which an activity is undertaken (method of operation)
An attempt to reconstruct an act or series of events with a view to identifying witnesses, testing hypothesis, assessing witnesses, identifying new lines of enquiry, presenting
- Timescales (1 week, 1 month, 1 year)
- Jogging memory - finding witnesses that could've been there
- Significant date or event (such as sporting match; particular use of venue)
1) Forensic (criteria set by SIO) e.g. DNA, footmark, fibres
2) Description - pre-meditated murder some sort of identification parameters
3) Independent witness (alibi)
4) associate or relative (ALIBI)
5) spouse/common law relationship (ALIBI)
6) not eliminated.
- Immediately there (eye witness)
- Pivotal to your enquiry ("I saw him go to the shed and get a hammer")
- More criminals are becoming forensically aware (e.g. socks in pockets rather than wearing them)
- Crimewatch (most wanted)
- Forensic recovery
- Number of suspects
- Urgency of arrest
House-to-house enquiries will always be an important tactical consideration whilst at the same time having the potential to be resource intensive, costly and yielding low investigative benefit.
Applying an intelligent approach to key sites; location, significant sightings and evidential discovery, house-to-house enquiries have the potential to be an effective tactical option providing valuable information and evidence
- First question; who lives there? Ensure that everyone gets spoken to
- RIPA - authorisations?
- What is the objective of the surveillance/technical intrusion etc
- Achievable through other tactical options?
- Level of risk to the public
Surveillance represents a tactical option which SIOs may wish to consider during the course of an investigation. As a tactical option it will rarely lead directly to the arrest of a person for murder, but it can lead to the acquisition of corroborative evidence or intelligence. As a general rule, surveillance should be used to obtain covert evidence/intelligence which cannot be obtained by overt means.
• What is the objective of the surveillance?
• Is the objective achievable through surveillance?
• Is the objective achievable through other tactical options?
• What is the risk to the public or police operation?
• What are the resource implications? Surveillance is expensive.
• The surveillance should only be carried out by trained personnel.
Tasking, reconnaissance, familiarisation, surveillance, product and analysis
- Consideration and support
- Relocation is an option, but the last option
• category of witness
• level of threat and intimidation
• fears of the witness
• background of the witness
• criminality of the witness
• the witness' expectations of the police
• what will relocation entail?
• state of mental and physical health of the witness and family
• security measures already provided
• financial profile of the witness and family
• cost implications to the Police
• risk assessment for witness and police officer
• willingness to the witness to sign up to requirement of Force
- Establishing motive
- Trace suspects/victims/witnesses movements (contactless)
- provide details of payments and receipts;
- provide access to financial accounts;
apply for forfeiture or confiscation of assets.
Other agencies liaison
- HSE (health and safety executive)
- SCAS - section for serious crime analysis
- MOE - method of entry
- DVI - disaster victim identification