Vert Birds

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Terms in this set (...)

requirements for flight
(3)
1. low weight relative to size
2. high power
3. aerodynamic shape
skeletal characteristics for flight
- pneumatic bones (hollow)
- loss and fusion of bones
- elastic
synsacrum
fusion of pelvic girdle and vertebral column
furculum (wish bone)
fusion of the clavicles (collar bone)
carpometacarpus
fusion of carpals and metacarpals (bones of wrist and hand)
uropygial gland
- preening gland
- produces an oil that water-proofs feathers
- located at base of the tail
birds excrete waste as...
uric acid

(no urinary bladder)
recrudescence
enlargement of the gonads during the breeding season
power-promoting adaptations
1. endothermy
2. powerful flight muscles
3. 4 chambered heart, double circulation
4. presence of air sacs
endothermy
maintain a high constant body temperature through metabolism
temperature of most birds?
over 104 deg C
muscles make up what percentage of body weight?
35%
down stroke muscles
pectoralis
upstroke muscles
supracoracoideus
keel
surface area
flighted birds (keeled)
carinate sternum (keeled)
flightless birds (unkeeled)
ratite (unkeeled)
white meat
breast muscles
dark meat
leg/thigh muscles
myoglobin
binds O2 in muscles (produces dark coloration)
functions of air sacs
1. increase utilization of O2 by allowing a one-way movement of air
2. evaporative cooling
papilla
produce cells that grow a feather
proximal barbules
point towards body
distal barbules
point away from body
barbicels
structures on the barbules
hooklets (hamuli)
projections on distal barbules only
contour feathers
form the outline of the body
retrices
tail feathers
(type of contour feather)
remiges
wing feathers
(type of contour feather)
pterylae
feather tracks (only contour features grow in them)
apteria
areas btw feather tracks (no contour feathers)
semiplumes
loose-vaned, lack hooklets, grow at margins of pterylae: insulation, increase bouyancy
filoplumes
hair-like, extend beyond contour feather, sensory function
bristles
around mouth, nostrils, and eyes; sensory function
rictal bristles
bristles around the mouth
down
short rachis, loose-vaned, insulation
powder down
grows continuously, vane disintegrates into a powder, water proof and lubricates feathers
plumage
feather covering
molt
sequence of feather replacement
natal down
first plumage upon hatching
altricial
hatch with a few down feathers; bare skin; cannot maintain body temp
nidicolus
"nest inhabitant," remain in nest after hatching
precocial
hatch with a full covering of natal down
nidifugous
"nest fugitive", leave the nest soon after hatching
partial molt
only contour feathers in certain pterylae; not flight feathers
complete molt
all feathers, including flight feathers
sequential molt
flight feathers molted in sequence
simultaneous molt
all flight feathers molted at once (typical of water birds)
melanin
black, gray, brown pigments
carotenoids
red, yellow, orange pigments (from diet)
porphyrins
brown, red, green

brown in owls and galliforms
white
absence of pigment
blue
refraction of light
green
blue + yellow pigment
iridescence
coloration changes according to conditions of observation
songs
long vocal displays with specific repeated patterns

- species-specific
- usually produced by males
- identify species, sex, and territory
calls
short, simple, vocalizations (often only a single note)

- interspecific
- produced by both sexes
syrinx
sond production organ
why do birds sing (reproductive functions)
- advertise sex of singer
- attract mates
- advertise territory
- indicate health
- synchronize mating behaviors
- strengthen pair bonds
why do birds sing (social functions)
- "password" for individual recognition
- rally individuals for a collective action
- hold flock together
- convey info about food (inter or intraspecific)
syllables
the specific parts of a song
syntax
the arrangement of the syllables
4 stages of learning songs (~1 yr long process)
1. critical learning period
2. silent period
3. subsong period
4. song crystallization period
critical learning period
- early in life when it must hear the adult song
- 1-2 months after hatching
silent period
song they heard is stored for later use
subsong period
- practice period
- mostly using innate ability
- "plastic song" - constantly changing
song crystallization period
transform plastic song into adult song
nonvocal songs
- drumming (ruffed grouse)
- mandible rattling (storks and herons)
- wing whistling (common nighthawk)
migration
a periodic 2-way movement
disadvantages of migration
1. high mortality
2. high energetic cost
3. loss of territory
advantages of migration
1. avoid times of food shortage
2. avoid extreme climates
3. reduced competition
photoperiod
- day length
- determines when to migrate
- physiological response
hyperphagia
- increase food consumption
- accumulate fat reserves to fuel migration and establishment
zugunruhe
nocturnal migratory restlessness
direction-finding mechanisms
1. sun compass
2. celestial navigation
3. magnetic field orientation
4. visual cues