Sport Psychology and Sociology Test Set
Terms in this set (23)
What is Sport Psychology?
-The application of psychological theory and methods to the study of behavior resulting from or directly related to involvement in sport and physical activity.
-Examining the psychological and emotional factors that influence sport performance and exercise behavior
-Sport psychology is about describing, explaining, and predicting performance.
-Describing behavior: We observe how personal and situational factors influence performance quality.
-Explaining behavior: We attempt to explain the causes of performance outcomes, such as poor performance under pressure conditions (choking).
-Predicting behavior: We attempt to predict performance quality due to psychological (i.e., personal) and social (i.e., environmental) factors.
Three Factors Influence Athletic Performance: Provide Examples of Each
I. The Athlete
II. The Coach
III. The Environment
Sample Issues in Sport Psychology
-Psychological and emotional effects of sport on the competitor (e.g., winning, losing, perceived competence, stress, anxiety).
-Ways in which thoughts and emotions influence sport performance.
-Particular characteristics of individuals who are drawn to exercise versus those who remain sedentary.
-Dealing with coaching concerns; how to best motivate athletes, develop team identify, and maintain optimal performance.
-Predicting future sport success (e.g., personality testing, skills tests, talent identification and talent development programs).
-Effectiveness of interventions on improving performance outcomes.
-Attempts to understand and, at times, alter the thoughts (i.e., cognition) and emotions of physical performers (e.g., primarily athletes, but also exercisers, rehabilitation patients, dancers, actors, musicians, the corporate sector).
Roles of Sport Psychologists
-Clinical Services (usually performed by licensed psychologists).
-Educational Services (usually performed by sport psychology consultants rather than licensed psychologists).
-Research Services (usually performed by university academics)
Overview of Sport Personality
-Personality Defined: A person's distinct and enduring thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize the person's reactions to life situations.
-Personality consists of many traits.
(1) Narrower in scope than styles and characteristics. Properties of persons that predispose them to react a certain way in classes of situations;
(2) Determined by age 6 years;
(3) Partly genetically determined.
Examples: Clinical depression, trait anxiety, neuroticism, stability, extroversion, introversion, trait anger, risk-taker.
(4) Traits emphasize only dispositions to explain behavior, not behavior itself;
(5) Traits minimize the role of situational factors.
-Defined as a person's actions, whether planned or unplanned, which are consistent and predictable across situations.
-Behavioral tendencies reflects an athlete's routines.
-Routines are thoughts and behaviors that a person automatically integrates into his or her day, or during sport competition.
(b) Routines help athletes maintain emotional control and regulate physical and mental energy before and during the event
-Describes the athlete's typical specific thoughts, emotions, and attitudes in specific types of situations (e.g., pre-game, post-game, under pressure, social settings).
-Examples: state anxiety, high self-control, resilience to stressful situations, assumes a specific role in certain settings, mood.
-Broad, encompassing (i.e., cross situational) types of thoughts, actions, or emotions toward others or situations.
-Examples: Optimism/pessimism, competitiveness, goal orientation, win orientation, coping style, commitment, learned helplessness or resourcefulness.
Sample Situational Factors
Situations and environmental conditions influence evidence of traits.
Presence of acute stress;
Use of effective vs. ineffective coping strategies;
Competitive vs. practice conditions;
Sport vs. "off the field;"
Level of pressure and expectations;
Presence and type of audience;
Social Facilitation: The effects of observers on performance level.
Does performance improve or worsen in response to observers?
General Principles of Social Facilitation
Combination of performer's skill level and type of audience predicts performance outcomes. Performance is best when:
(1) An easy skill is performed in the presence of an evaluative audience;
(2) A difficult/complex skills is performed with no audience or passive observers.
Home Field Advantage
Does the home team win more games than it loses on it's home field or court?
The research literature generally confirms that home teams win contests more often then they lose when playing in front of home fans.
Reasons include greater audience support, playing in familiar surroundings, even sleeping in one's own home and performing well established rituals.
Evidence of a home field disadvantage.
Best explanation of home teams who win fewer games than when on the road concerns the athletes' perceptions of high spectator expectations.
High perceived observer (fan) expectations can add considerable pressure to athletes and their self-expectations of performance success. Cheers can quickly turn to "boos," raising player anxiety and lowering player confidence.
Reasons for Poorer Post-Injury
1. Changes in Attentional Focusing
(going from external-broad to internal-narrow)
2. Higher muscle tension;
3. Less pain tolerance (more tentative movement, slower response time).
Cognitive strategies such as positive self-talk, mental imagery, relaxation training; attentional focusing (best if taught be a sport psychology consultant);
Goal setting (for rehab and future competition);
Social support groups (teammates, medical, rehabilitation team, family, teachers; sport psychology consultant);
Coach support (return to practice and competition, offered encouragement, sense of relevance as a team member).
Socialization in Youth Sport
Four primary factors that influence involvement in sport and physical activity:
(2) situational and environmental factors;
(3) family trends; and
(4) personal factors.
Girls tend to select sports identical to those in which their mothers currently or formerly participated.
Family influence continued to be the best predictor of sport involvement.
Parental attitudes and preferences are passed on to offspring.
Fathers are the most important others in making judgments about sport participation;
Girls are more negatively affected by lack of a father's support than boys.
Why Children Participate in Sport
Ranked reasons for playing in the following order: (1) to have fun, (2) to learn and improve skills, (3) to be with friends and make new ones, (4) for excitement, (5) to succeed or win, and (6) to exercise and become physically fit.
Why Children Drop Out of Sport
Primary reasons (ranked) for quitting sport:
(1) an overemphasis on winning;
(2) lack of success;
(3) not playing;
(4) involvement in other activities, and other interests.
(6) little skill improvement; and
(7) excessive competitive stress.
Causes of Quitting Youth Sports
(1) comparative appraisal,
(2) perceived lack of ability, and
(3) low intrinsic motivation.
I. Comparative appraisal: A process in which children begin comparing themselves with others to determine their own relative status on motor ability;
Starts around ages 4 to 5 years;
Increases in importance through the elementary and adolescent years;
Child athletes increasingly compare themselves with the abilities of others more often at this time due to relatively little past experience on which to base accurate self-appraisal
II. Perceived lack of ability: The primary reason children drop out of sport is that they attribute failure (poor performance) to their lack of ability.
If the athlete is to maintain participation in sport, he or she needs the approval of significant others (the coach, teammates, friends, and parents).
The young player soon realizes that the approval of the coach is dependent upon effort. "If I try hard, the coach will like and accept me."
Therefore, trying hard becomes the main criterion of success and failure
III. Low intrinsic motivation: Perceptions of competence or incompetence are the most critical factors that influence performance and persistence.
The individual constantly strives to demonstrate high ability and minimize low ability. This is especially critical in youth sports.
Thus, in order to persist at a task, the young athlete must have feelings of competence or perceived success.
Avoid comparing children; every child has his or her own skill level, strengths, and weaknesses.
Help children to realize that "different" doesn't necessarily mean "better."
Adults should be positive models for children. If adults expect children to avoid criticizing peers, coaches and parents must do likewise.
Help to prevent sport-related stress. Adults can help children make more positive appraisals of their sport experiences and to overcome stress in sport.
Coach & Parent Strategies to Build IM
Coaches and parents need to offer feedback to young players that indicates three things:
1. That doing the best they (young athletes) can -making the effort - is very important for success;
2. That their performance (any aspect of it that can be observed and identified) is, in fact, improving; &
3. That lack of ability has nothing to do with poor performance outcome because they are capable of improving with practice and instruction.
When Are Children Ready for Competition?
The word readiness implies that a person has reached a certain point of maturity and skill development that allows for the opportunity to succeed.
A match should exist between a child's level of growth, development, and maturation and the demands of the task (e.g., hitting on a batting T versus hitting against live pitching)
Three primary considerations indicating a young participant is ready for skill introduction.
1. Maturation is the most important determinant of readiness;
2. The child's prior experiences through learning;
3. Motivation - the incentive to learn.
There are two important issues concerning readiness in sport:
(1) Children are not likely to be ready to compete in sport until they have acquired the necessary skills to become successful, and
(2) The likelihood of skill learning and performance is dependent on the individual's level of cognitive (perceptual and sensory) and physical (movement coordination) maturation.
Mental Readiness for Competitive Sport
Factors that accompany psychological development through competitive sport (ages 8 to 10 yrs) include empathy (i.e., sensitivity toward another person's point of view) and understanding one's role and the responsibilities of each team member in the competitive environment (i.e., valuing cooperation and sacrifice, rather than competition and placing one's needs and interests above those of others).
Each individual must understand the importance of cooperation for the good of the team.
The Proper Role of Parents in Youth Sport
Parents' code of ethics:
1. I will encourage good sportsmanship by demonstrating positive support for all players, coaches, and officials at every game, practice, or other youth sports event.
2. I will place the physical and emotional well-being of my child ahead of my personal desire to win.
3. I will insist that my child play in a safe and healthy environment.
4. I will support coaches and officials working with my child, in order to encourage a positive and enjoyable experience for all.
5. I will do my best to make youth sports fun for my child.
6. I promise to help my child enjoy the youth sports experience by doing whatever I can, such as being a respectful fan, assisting with coaching, or providing transportation.
7. I will remember that the game is for youth, not for adults.
8. I will ask my child to treat other players, coaches, fans, and officials with respect, regardless of race, sex, creed, or abililty.
9. Finally, I will demand a sports environment for my child that is free of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco, and will refrain from their use at all youth sports events.