60 terms

PS 354 (Psychology of Criminal Justice) Midterm 1

Quiz questions from chapters 5, 6 & 7.
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The Innocence Project completed an analysis of the first 150 cases in which a previously
incarcerated person was exonerated by DNA and found that a majority of these cases
involved
mistaken eyewitness identification.
Sometimes police just look for evidence that implicates a suspect that has been
identified by an eyewitness and stop investigating any other leads. This situation is an illustration of
confirmation bias.
Those wrongly imprisoned are typically well compensated for the time they spent in
prison.
False
If a weapon is present when a crime is committed, a witness will tend to pay more
attention to the weapon than to other things (e.g., the face of a perpetrator). What is
this effect called?
weapon focus effect
What is the correct order of processes in perception and memory (first to last)?
encoding, storage, retrievel
During an extremely stressful situation, how is encoding affected?
It is often incomplete.
A robbery occurs at a liquor store. The clerk identifies the defendant in a police lineup.
The defendant claims he had been in the store earlier to get change, but had not robbed the store. If the defendant is telling the truth, the clerk's identification would reflect
unconscious transference.
The other race effect refers to the idea that
eyewitnesses are usually better at recognizing and identifying members of their own race or ethnic group than members of another race or ethnic group.
Which of the following is a true statement regarding how the age of an eyewitness tends to impact lineup identifications?
Older adults and young children are more likely to make a mistaken identification in a lineup in which the perpetrator is absent than young and middle‑aged adults.
Researchers recommend that a person conducting a lineup should tell the witness that the culprit may or may not be present in the lineup. Without this instruction, what tends to happen?
false identification tends to increase
the eyewitness may feel they must choose someone
the eyewitness tends to choose the person who most resembles the person they witnessed
Which of the following statements is not true about witness confidence?
Witness confidence is a good indicator of witness accuracy.
Which of the following is included in the Justice Department guidelines for conducting
lineups and photo spreads?
asking the witness to provide a statement of certainty before the lineup administrator provides any feedback
use unbiased lineup instructions
use similar looking fillers in the lineup
use sequential, not simultaneous presentation, in a lineup
According to research presented in Chapter 5, what tends to happen when hypnotized
subjects are asked leading questions?
They make more errors than they would if they were just hypnotized or just asked leading questions.
Loftus (1974) gave subjects a description of an armed robbery. Eighteen percent
presented with only circumstantial evidence convicted the defendant. When an
eyewitness's identification was provided in addition to the circumstantial evidence, what
percentage convicted the defendant?
72% of the jurors convicted him
Which of the following was found by Brewer and Burke (2002) to have a strong impact
on jurors' verdict decisions?
the witness's level of confidence
Cross‑examining eyewitnesses provides one of the safeguards against mistaken
identification. According to Chapter 5, which of the following is needed for the crossexamination of eyewitnesses to be effective?
jurors should consider the length of time between the crime + the later identification
jurors should consider the level of certainty demonstrated by the eyewitness at the time of identification
jurors should consider the eyesight after witness
jurors should consider the degree of accuracy of the witness prior description of the criminal
What recommendation advocated by the Supreme Court in Neil v. Biggers (1972) would psychologists most disagree with when jurors evaluate eyewitness testimony for its accuracy?
Jurors should consider the level of certainty demonstrated by the eyewitness at the time of identification.
An unconscious process in which victims of abuse escape the full impact of an event by
psychologically detaching themselves from it is called
dissociation.
In delayed reporting statutes, abuse survivors can bring suit against their alleged attackers
within three years from the date of recovering the memory
How did sociologist Richard Ofshe check the accuracy of Paul Ingram's memory?
He fabricated an event and then asked Ingram to recall it.
A researcher has been interviewing those who have committed serial murders in an
effort to learn about their backgrounds, their personalities and features about their
crimes such as how they select their victims. He is comparing the information he
obtains from these murderers to determine the similarities they have among them.
Compiling this information is a standard part of the process of
criminal profiling.
Jim, a disgruntled postal worker, rushed into the post office one Thursday afternoon
and sprayed his fellow employees with gunfire, killing ten and wounding many more. According to Chapter 6, what type of multiple murderer is Jim?
a mass murderer.
In approximately what percentage of studied mass murders was the assailant related to
or well‑acquainted with the victims?
80%
Tom goes to an abortion clinic and kills several women, then he drives to a second
abortion clinic and kills several more women. According to Chapter 6, what type of
multiple murderer is Tom?
a spree killer
According to Chapter 6, there may be as many as ______ serial murderers in the U.S.
100
The "BTK" Killer, Dennis Rader, confessed to killing 10 people over a span of 30 years.
When asked why he did it, he explained that he killed for the sexual satisfaction that he
got from the experience. According to Chapter 6, what kind of serial murderer was
Dennis Rader?
hedonistic-oriented
According to criminal profilers, brutal facial injuries suggest killers that
knew their victims
The landmark case in which a defendant appealed his murder conviction because a trial judge did not allow information about the results of a physiological deception test was
Frye v. United States
Which of the following is usually not measured in a polygraph examination?
salivary response
Physiological measures, by themselves, can distinguish between guilt and which of the
following negative emotions?
none of the above (anger, guilt)
What is the main problem with the relevant/irrelevant polygraph procedure?
Even if you are innocent, you know what the relevant questions are, and thus they are likely to generate an emotional response.
The goal of the guilty knowledge test is to detect
knowledge
Some suggest that it is possible to judge whether or not someone is lying by judging
facial, body, nonverbal and vocal cues. For example, according to information presented
in Chapter 6,
when people lie, the voice pitch tends to increase
when people lie they use gestures less when talking
when people like, they may attempt to lengthen their gaze
Most courts do not allow polygraph results and opinions to be admitted into evidence. (T/F)
True
If a suspect confesses and then later recants, the confession can still be introduced into
evidence at the trial. (T/F)
True
In Miranda v. Arizona (1966) the Supreme Court held that any confession resulting from
an in‑custody interrogation was admissible in court only if it was considered voluntary
and the police had taken steps to ensure the suspect's protection from self-incrimination. (T/F)
True
Ernest Miranda appealed his conviction for rape all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court
and the court concluded that his right against self‑incrimination had been violated. He
was granted a new trial. What was the outcome of this second trial?
Even though his confession was excluded this time, he was convicted again.
Kassin (2005) analyzed the cases in which the defendant had been exonerated by DNA
evidence. What percentage of these defendants had falsely confessed?
25%
Which of the following has been acknowledged as a way that investigators can be certain that a defendant has falsely confessed to a crime?
the suspect confessed a crime that did not occur
the suspect confessed to a crime that was physically impossible for him or her to commit
the suspect confessed to a crime, but the guilt of another perpetrator has definitely been established
In Kassin, Goldstein and Savitsky's (2003) study, interrogators who assumed that the
suspect was guilty
tried harder to elicit a confession
presented false evidence during interrogation
had suspects who were later more likely to be IDed as guilty of the crime by naive observers
The initial appearance must take place soon after arrest because extended detention of
those charged with a crime violates which of the following amendments?
4th
The purpose of a grand jury is
to indict or not to indict
During the arraignment process
the suspect enters a plea.
Exculpatory evidence is evidence
that tends to show the defendant to be not guilty as charged.
The case that ruled that the prosecution must disclose to the defense evidence that is
favorable to the defense was
Brady v. Maryland
According to research findings presented in Chapter 7, how does a jury tend to react to
multiple charges?
They are more likely to convict a defendant on a charge when it is
combined with another charge rather than when it is tried alone.
A dismissal with prejudice means that
subsequent attempts at prosecution are barred.
Dismissal on the grounds of double jeopardy relates to which amendment to the U.S.
Constitution?
5th
The defense can make a pretrial motion to suppress evidence obtained in violation of a
defendant's right to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures. Which
amendment guarantees this right?
4th
A motion in limine is
a request for a pretrial ruling.
In United States v. Salero
the bail amount should not be excessive.
With regard to pretrial release, researchers have found that after controlling for prior
record and charges, _____________ defendants were more likely to be released than
_____________ defendants.
female, male
Approximately what percentage of criminal cases don't go to court, but are instead
resolved by plea bargaining?
85%
Most of the time judges are willing to accept the sentence recommended by the
prosecutor.
True
Which of the following has been cited as a justification of plea bargaining?
a guilty plea means that the case doesn't have to go to trial in an overloaded court system
taking responsibility for one's crime can be a step towards rehabilitation
the victim doesn't have to relive trauma in open court
Victims are never involved in the plea bargaining process.
False
The first ruling on pretrial publicity was
United States v. Burr
What is the current status of the rights of the press to be present in the courtroom?
The press may not be excluded from actual trials, but they may be excluded from pretrial hearings.
Researchers conducting experiments investigating the effects of pretrial publicity have generally found that pretrial publicity
can affect jurors' evaluations of a defendant's character
can affect juror's pretrial thoughts about defendant's guilt
can affect juror's final verdicts
Which of the following is the most common method used by the courts to control for
pretrial publicity?
expanded voir dire