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Time Period 2 Key Concepts
Terms in this set (44)
How did religions help strengthen political,economic, and cultural ties within societies?
religions strengthened political, economic, and cultural ties because rulers often used religion to justify their rule, such as the mandate of heaven; people who shared belief systems and customs developed a cultural bond; religions unified societies
How did religions promote a sense of unity?
by providing people with common beliefs; those who practiced the same religion shared things in common and their beliefs unified them
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Judaism?
Characteristics: founders Abraham and Moses; begins M East to Egypt; Diaspora under Romans; didn't seek conversions; Israelites practiced it; priests were called Rabbi
Core Teachings: Yahweh was the only God; ten commandments; heaven, hell, salvation, judgment day
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Hinduism(s)?
Characteristics: no single founder; originated in Indus valley with Aryan invasions; spread to S E Asia but mostly concentrated in India; based on Vedas and Upanishads;
Core Teachings: Brahman was supreme spirit; reincarnation based on karma; focused on dharma and importance of caste system
What is a "universal religion?" Where did universal religions exist by 600 CE ?
universal religions share common beliefs with other religions; Christianity & Buddhism were universal religions by 600 CE. Christianity developed in Judea and spread throughout Roman empire and Buddhism in India and spread to China. these religions of salvation were universal b/c they were commonly known and their beliefs shared things in common with other beliefs systems and religions
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Buddhism?
Characteristics: Siddhartha Gautama; founded in Himalayas; spread by monks, missionaries, trade and empire;
Core Teachings: Eightfold Path; reach nirvana; reincarnation; Four Noble Truths; equality; rejects caste system
How and where did Buddhism spread by 600 CE ?
spread by monks, missionaries, and trade along Silk Roads; reached Han China, Korea, Japan, SE Asia & India by 600 CE
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Confucianism?
Characteristics: founder was Mencius Confucius; began in warring state period; official policy of Han dynasty; spread to Vietnam, Japan, and Korea; more a philosophy than a religion
Core Teachings: respect place in hierarchy; rule by good example; Ren--humanity and kindness; Li--propriety compliance; Xiao--filial
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Daoism?
Characteristics: founder was Laozi; began in warring states period in China; no focus on conversion
Core Teachings: harmony, balance, no concept of God, simple life, go with the flow, inner peace
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Christianity?
•Roman empire: west empire, Med. region north Africa, south/north Asia
•started from Judaism -> Christianity
-spread through missionaries/disciples
•Romans sent "Jews" out of Judea
•Romans help spread Christianity
•Syncronism: combination of 2 religions
How and where did Christianity spread by600 CE ?
•Christian missionaries running away from persecution used Roman roads and sea lanes - throughout Roman empire and Mediterranean basin
•Gregory the Wonder worker - made Christianity popular in Anatolia by preaching Christian doctrine, expelling demons, moving boulders, and diverting a river in flood - by late 3rd century CE, Christianity had spread to Anatolia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, north Africa, Greece, Italy, Spain, and Gaul
•by 200 CE, Christianity flourished throughout Mesopotamia, Iran, and somewhat in India trough trade routes.
What are the main characteristics of Greco-Roman philosophy and science?
Emphasized logic, imperial observation, and the nature of political power and hierarchy.
How did religions affect gender roles in their respective societies?
Hinduism in India - Caste system: 4 castes each had specific duties - dharma - women stayed home as wives or mothers.
What other religious and cultural traditions were common by 600 CE ?
How did humans' reliance on the natural world influence religion?
•Shamanism: belief in people who can connect to gods and the spirits of nature
•Animism: the attribution to plants, inanimate objects, and animals, the material universe
•used to have resources and plants and animals
How did humans relate to their deceased ancestors?
•In Africa, Mediterranean, East Asia, and Andean
•roots from neolithic
•China - believed ancestors went to realm - support and protect surviving - if proper respect give - prosperous family only if ALL members worked cooperately
How did art and culture develop to 600 CE ?
•Greek and Indian literature and drama influenced neighbors
•Homer - Iliad, Odyssey
•Sophocles - Antigone, Oedipus Rex
What literary works influenced later eras?
literature and drama influenced later eras some examples are the Greek tragedy and Indian epics
How did different societies' architectural styles develop?
Different architectural styles developed through new ideas through interactions(trade) with other people with other beliefs and ideas
What examples of syncretism reflect the Classical Era to 600 CE ?
An example of syncretism is the convergence of Greco-Roman culture and Buddhist beliefs this affected the development of unique ideas such as sculpturally, architecturally, and literary works
What is an "empire," and what were empires' common characteristics during the Classical Era?
An empire is administrative large area of land ruled by an emperor. An empire consists of a
and great administrative systems
How did the number & size of Classical empires compare to the Ancient Era?
Classical empires grew through political unity on areas where previously had been competing states
What were the most influential of the Classical Era empires?
These were some of the influential empires:
Qin and Han Dynasty
Maurya and Gupta empires
Hellenistic and Roman empires
What techniques did Classical empires create to administer their territories?
Classical empires created centralized governments, legal systems and bureaucracies to administer their territories
What new political methods were created in order to rule the larger empires inthe Classical Era?
In order to keep control of the large empires emperors hired sub-emperors who supervised as emperors for their assigned area of the empire.
How did imperial governments let their population
know that the government was "in charge?"
Imperial governments used their military power to demonstrate that the government was "in charge" the military projected their power through projects such as defensive walls and roads.
What role did trade play in creating and maintaining empires?
-to establish a solid economy
-to create a religion, based on the ideas shared in the trade routes, to spread or convert
-people traded ideas and they learned how to build projects and forms of government
What unique social and economic characteristics existed in empires?
unique social and economic dimensions developed in imperial societies in Afro-Eurasia and the Americas.
What function did imperial cities perform?
imperial cities were centers of trade, public performances of religious rituals, and political administration for states and empires.
What social classes and occupations were common in empires?
hierarchies including, cultivators, laborers, slaves, artisans, merchants, elites, or caste groups.
What labor systems provided the workers for Classical Empires?
Imperial societies relied on a range of methods to maintain the production of food and provide rewards for the loyalty of the elites including corvee, slavery, rents and tributes, peasant communities and family and household production.
Describe the gender and family structures of Classical Era empires.
-patriarchal society, men were the head of the family
What caused Classical Empires to decline, collapse, or transform into something else?
-excessive mobilization of resources, causing environmental damages.
-invasions from outsiders
-social tensions- land distribution caused a problem between peasants and elites.
What were the environmental and social weaknesses of Classical Empires?
-diseases-diseases weakened the economy because people were getting sick and dying and that meant less people to work and help to build projects.
-agriculture-overworking land causing environmental damages.
What external weaknesses contributed to the end of Classical Empires?
-invasions- outsiders invaded the surrounding and began to move towards the capital of the city to conquer everything (ex:Han China and Xiongnu; Gupta and the White Huns)
How did Classical era trade networks compare to Ancient era networks?
they were long-distance trade networks which spanned across oceans and continents even(ex: Silk Road, Royal Road, etc....) while Ancient era networks were based at more local levels
What forces contributed to the changes between the two eras?
-bureaucratic organization/ empire unification
-demand of goods/ raw materials
-maintaining military force
-need for communication
What was commonly traded along these trade networks?
-cultural beliefs/ religions
-technology/ raw materials/ goods(luxury)
-food crops/domesticated animals
How did trade & communication networks develop by
using new technologies and bureaucratic organization empires developed communication and trade networks based in maritime and land routes across the Eastern Hemisphere
What technologies enabled long-distance overland and maritime trade?
-technologies for domesticated animals like yokes, saddles, stirrups, etc...) enabled overland long-distance trade
-knowledge on monsoon seasons and ship innovations(lateen sails, dhow ships, etc...) enabled maritime long-distance trade
Besides the physical goods,what intangibles also traveled along trade networks?
-cultural beliefs (religions, social structures, etc...)
-irrigation/ farming techniques
What crops spread along Classical Era trade networks?
cotton, sugar, and rice spread from South Asia to Middle East
What effects did diseases have on Classical empires?
diseases decimated urban populations which led to the end of some Classical empires (Roman empire/ Chinese empire)
What was the relationship between trade networks and religions?
trade networks were used to spread religions over long distances by missionaries
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