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Chapter 9 Clinical & Sport Biomechanics
Terms in this set (62)
What is clinical and sport biomechanics?
The study of the human body at rest and in motion using principles and concepts derived from physics, mechanics, and engineering
What does static biomechanics do?
Examines bodies, masses, and forces at rest or moving at a constant velocity
What does dynamic biomechanics do?
Investigates bodies, masses, and forces when they are speeding up or slowing down
What is clinical biomechanics?
Focuses on improving the ability of an injured or disabled individual to perform ADLs including work and leisure activities, physical activity, or exercise
What is sport biomechanics?
Applies the laws and principles of mechanics ad physics to enhance sport performance through the improvement in movement techniques or the development of equipment
Buoyancy video on slides
What are Newton's 3 laws?
Law of inertia, law of acceleration, and law of reaction
What is the law of inertia?
The > an object's mass, the > its inertia; resistance to action or change
What is the law of acceleration?
A change in acceleration of a body occurs in the same direction as the force that caused it
What is the law of reaction?
For every reaction there is an equal and opposite reaction; ground reaction force
What are the types of body motion?
Linear, angular, and general motion
What is linear motion?
Occurs when all points of the body are moving int he same direction at the same speed and are traveling at the same distance; rectilinear and curvilinear translation
What is angular motion?
Referred to as rotary motion or roatation, is movement around a central imaginary line known as the axis of rotation
What is general motion?
Occurs when translation and angular movements are combined
Examples of body rotations of slides
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What are mechanical systems?
Operationally defining the system of interest; body segment or limb analyzed during movement
What is standard reference terminology?
Common and specific terminology that precisely identifies body positions and movement direction; an atomic reference position
What is joint movement terminology?
Movements of bones and joints of the body
What is an atomic reference position?
An erect standing position with the feet lightly separated, the arms hangin relaxed at the sides, and the palms of the hands facing forward.
What is directional terms?
Used to describe the relationship of body parts or the location of an external object with respect to the body
What are anatomic reference planes?
The division of the body by three imaginary cardinal planes into three dimensions: sagittal, frontal, and transverse
What ate anatomic reference axes?
The use of three reference axes for describing the rotation fo the human body: medio-lateral, antero-posterior, and longitudinal
What is fundamental position?
The same as anatomical position except arms are at side and palms facing body
Illustrations of the planes of the body in an anatomic position on slides
What is frontal plane?
Divides body into anterior and posterior halves; allows for abductiona nd addiction movements
What is sagittal plane?
Lateral and medial halves; allows for flexion and extension movements
What is transverse plane?
Superior and inferior halves; allows for rotational movements
What are spatial reference systems used for?
To quantitatively describe the movement if humans using a spatial reference system and standardized measurements
What is the system most commonly used in spatial reference systems?
The Cartesian coordinate system
What is the Cartesian coordinate system?
The location of a point is given by coordinates that represent its distance from perpendicular lines that intersect at a point called the origin
What does a 2-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system look like?
All Star Trig Class coordinate plane
True or False: There are positive and negative positions in 2-dimensional Cartesian coordinate systems
What are the two important factors required through knowledge for the qualitative analysis of human movement?
Techniques exhibited by the performer and performance outcome
What are mechanical loads on the human body?
Forces that act upon a body or object: gravity, muscles, and external to the body
What is the most common type of loading on the body?
What are the effects of loading?
Acceleration and deformation
What is acceleration?
The rate of change in velocity
What is deformation?
Change in shape or structure of an object or body component
What is acute vs repetitive (chronic) loads?
Body tissues to experience positive adaptations or increase of injury risk; increase in BMD, fractures
What is compressive force (compression)?
Force that tends to shorten or squeeze something, decreasing its volume
What is tensile force (tension)?
A force which tends to stretch or elongate something
What is shear force?
Force acting on a substance in a direction perpendicular to the extension of the substance
True or False: Excessive mechanical loading may result in serious muscle gain.
False; it may result in serious tissue deformation (injury)
What does clinical biomechanics involve?
Involves work with injured/diseased individuals
What do clinical biomechanics design?
Designing individualized rehab techniques, wheelchair design, tissue repair, surgical techniques, and bone an issue design
What is a disease that clinical biomechanics work with?
What is osteoarthritis?
The wearing away of cartilage, loss of joint function
What is the difference between the healthy population and the osteoarthritis population?
Different gait patterns
What do sport biomechanics examine to improve performance?
Technique improvement, equipment improvement, training improvement, and injury prevention
What is an example of a performance technique?
Pitcher decreases throwing velocity
What is an example of performance analysis?
Observing pitcher from different positions
What is an example of a change in technique?
Recommending opening up front foot when stepping towards home plate
What is an example of a change in performance?
Hips open sooner creating more force and greater throwing velocity
What are projectiles?
Throwing or hitting of an object with gravity and air friction
What is a horizontal component?
What is a vertical component?
Influenced by gravity
What is the acceleration of a body in free fall?
What is the formula for force?
True or False: The bigger the mass of a falling object, the greater the force of the gravitational attraction pulling it towards Earth.
What is ergonomics
Interaction between humans, the objects they used, & the environments in which they function
How is ergonomics used?
Used to prevent workplace injuries and improve the capacity to return to work after injury
How is ergonomics helpful in every day life?
Design equipment and modify work and living conditions for special populations, implement changes to the home, recreational sites, & facilitates, motor vehicles, schools, clinics, workplace, & other human-built environments
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