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Bio Final Exam
Terms in this set (87)
Explain how science is a process of inquiry
Inquiry is simply seek information by questioning
Scientific inquiry specifically seeks to understand the natural world based on observations
The Scientific method
Observation of natural processes
Proposal of a hypothesis, upon which a testable prediction is based as to how that process works
Experimental testing of that prediction
Evaluation of the validity of that hypothesis.
List the characteristics common to all living things
Maintain an organized structure
Metabolize (use energy)
Grow, reproduce, and die
Respond to their environment
Order the organizational units of life from smallest to largest
Recognize the three domains of life
Bacteria Prokaryotic, unicellular organisms
-Lack a membrane-bounded nucleus
-Heterotrophic by absorption
-Autotrophic by chemosynthesis or by photosynthesis
-Moved by flagella
-Prokaryotic, unicellular organisms
-Lack a membrane-bounded nucleus
many are autotrophic by chemosynthesis; some are heterotrophic by absorption
-unique rRNA base sequence
-Distinctive plasma membrane and cell wall chemistry
-Eukaryotic, unicellular to multicellular organisms
-Phenotypes and nutrition are diverse
-Each kingdom has specializations
-Flagella, if present, have a 9+2 organization
Explain how the theory of evolution unifies all life on earth
Striking unity, especially at lower level of organization.
Among eukaryotes, unity is evident in many details of cell structure.
The universal genetic code of DNA unites prokaryotes, like bacteria, with eukaryotes, like humans.
Common descent accounts for unity of life
Features shared by two species are due to their descent from a common ancestor.
Describe the subatomic arrangement of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom.
Proton number determines the element, Positively charged
Determine the element and atomic number
Neutron number determines the isotope, No charge
With protons determine atomic mass
Electron configuration determines reactivity, Negatively charged
Determine the chemical reactivity
Orbit the nucleus in a "cloud"
Distinguish atomic number, atomic mass, and valence.
Atomic number is the number of protons
Atomic mass is number of protons and the number of electrons
valence is the outer shell of electrons
Classify chemical bonds as either covalent, ionic, or hydrogen and rank their relative strength.
Covalent- involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms
Ionic-form when one atom gives up one or more electrons to another atom
Hydrogen bonds -a weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrostatic attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other
Distinguish polar from nonpolar covalent bonds.
polar covalent bonds the shared electrons reside closer to the more electronegative atom resulting in partial charges on the bound atoms.
nonpolar covalent bonds the electrons are equally shared.
Explain the relationship between the polar nature of water and its ability to form hydrogen bonds.
Form when a hydrogen atom (δ+) that is covalently to a more electronegative atom (δ-) is attracted to another more electronegative atom.
Hydrogen bonds are very dynamic, constantly being made, broken, and reformed
Although individually weak, the cumulative effect of hydrogen bonds can effect the chemistry and 3D shape of other molecules
2. Displays cohesion and adhesion
3. Expands when frozen
4. Readily dissolves polar molecules
5. Dissociates into H3O+ and OH-
Describe and interpret the pH scale.
Acids increase the concentration of H3O+ and decrease the pH
Bases decrease the concentration of H3O+ and increase the pH
The pH scale is logarithmic!
Define buffers and explain their importance to living organisms.
Buffers are substances that minimize changes in pH in solution
Summarize why carbon forms diverse organic molecules.
has four valence electrons, thus can covalently bind 4 atoms
forms both polar and non-polar covalent bonds
can bond to hydrogen to form hydrocarbons or with more complex functional groups
Describe the four classes of biological macromolecules.
Proteins are one or more polypeptides folded into a specific Polypeptides are polymers of amino acids linked via dehydration reactions by peptide bonds
3D structural arrangement
Recognize common carbohydrate monomers and polymers.
Glucose-Primary source of energy for most living organisms
Fructose-Simple sugar often found in plants
Galactose-Simple sugar often found in dairy products
Starch-Many plants, especially potatoes and grains
Cellulose - Plant Cell Walls
Compare and contrast the structure and function of triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and steroids.
triacylglycerols- Composed of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acid molecules formed by dehydration reactions
phospholipids- 1 glycerol,
2 fatty acids, and
1 phosphate group with a polar group Amphipathic: contain polar "heads" and nonpolar "tails"
Essential components of biological membranes
Steroids- Lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton containing four fused rings (shown in yellow)
Vary by the functional groups added to those four fused rings
Include cholesterol and sex hormones
Describe the components of a nucleotide.
Nitrogenous base: Nitrogenous base
Purines: Adenine (A) and Guanine (G)
Pyrimidines: Cytosine (C), Thymine (T) and Uracil (U)
Pentose Sugar: Deoxyribose (in DNA) Ribose (RNA)
Phosphate- makes DNA acidic (has a negative charge)
Compare and contrast DNA and RNA's chemical composition.
-Both: made up of nucleotides, where DNA has T, A, G, and C, and RNA has U, A, G, and C
Describe the general structure of an amino acid and the importance of the side chain chemistry
amino acids have a central carbon, which is connected to an amino group (NH2), and carboxyl group (COOH), a hydrogen, and an R group that determines the chemical of the amino acid
-1st group of amino acids is nonpolar
-2nd group is uncharged polar
-3rd and 4th groups are polar
Describe factors that influence the 3D structure of a protein.
-tertiary structure: 3D shape determined by interactions among various side chains and backbone
-quaternary structure: association of multiple polypeptide subunits
Compare applications for light and electron microscopy.
electron microscopes- Higher magnification and resolution , difficult preparation, can view a live specimen underneath it.
Light microscopes- Lower magnification and resolution, easy preparation and cannot view a live specimen underneath it
Summarize the three principles of the cell theory.
1. cells are the smallest unit of life
2. all organisms are composed of one or more cells
3. cells arise only by division from a previously living cell
Illustrate the general structure of a eukaryotic cell.
only eukaryotes have a true nucleus, have organelles
all cells have:
-genetic material (DNA) centrally located
-ribosomes that synthesize proteins
-internal cytoskeleton structures the interior
-cytosol that fills the interior of the cell
-plasma membrane that surrounds the cell
List the specific structures of the endomembrane system.
most of the endomembrane system
Describe the structure and function of the ribosomes.
function: perfroms translation, or protein synthesis; they are both language translators and efficient assembly workers
-composed of rRNA and proteins, and are in the cytoplasm
structure: large subunit and small subunit
List similarities and differences between mitochondria and chloroplasts.
-both produce ATP,
-both organelles have chemical cycles in which the initial acceptor is regenerated at the end of the cycle
-mitochondria are involved in cellular respiration, while chloroplasts are involved in photosynthesis.
-mitochondria are also found in all cells, while chloroplasts are only in certain plant cells
-electron acceptors for mitochondria are NAD and FAD, while NADP is for chloroplasts
Classify the three cytoskeletal components based on their structure and primary primary functions.
-microfilaments: actin filaments, thinnest in the cytoskeleton, found in the cytoplasm, responsible for muscle contraction
-microtubules: cylindrical tubes made of tubulin termed alpha and beta, act as a scaffold to determine cell shape, form spindle fibers for separating chromosomes during mitosis
-intermediate filaments: strong and ropelike, provide tensile strength for the cell
Compare and contrast eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
-both composed of cells
-have cell membrane
-only eukaryotes have nucleus
-eukaryotes have more than one chromosome
-prokaryotes are unicellular
-prokaryotes are only bacteria and archaea
Describe the structure of phospholipids and recognize how they are arranged in membranes.
-consist of a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail
-Phospholipids line up and arrange themselves into two parallel layers, called a phospholipid bilayer, which makes up your cell membranes and is critical to a cell's ability to function
Define the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane.
-The fluid-mosaic model describes the plasma membrane of animal cells
-The plasma membrane that surrounds these cells has two layers (a bilayer) of phospholipids (fats with phosphorous attached), which at body temperature are like vegetable oil (fluid)
Predict the effect of cholesterol and the saturation of the phospholipid hydrocarbon tails on membrane fluidity.
-Cholesterol functions as a buffer, preventing lower temperatures from inhibiting fluidity and preventing higher temperatures from increasing fluidity
Define glycosylation and describe the importance of glycosylation for cell-cell recognition.
-Glycosylation is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule
-happens in the golgi apparatus
-Glycosylation is a critical function of the biosynthetic-secretory pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus. Approximately half of all proteins typically expressed in a cell undergo this modification, which entails the covalent addition of sugar moieties to specific amino acids
Predict which molecules are likely to pass through the cell membranes unaidedly and which are not.
likely: small, nonpolar, uncharged molecules
unlikely: large, polar, charged molecules
Define the effects hypertonic and hypotonic solutions.
hypertonic solution: water will move into the solution
hypotonic solution: water will move out of the solution
Compare and contrast passive diffusion, passive transport, and active transport (transport protein and energy requirement).
passive diffusion: solutes move down/with concentration gradient, occurs spontaneously, without energy, no transport proteins required
facilitated transport: solutes move down/with concentration gradient, occurs spontaneously, requires transport protein
active transport: solutes move up/against concentration gradient, requires energy input and transport protein
Compare and contrast the three types of endocytosis.
1. phagocytosis: "cell eating"
2. pinocytosis: "cell drinking"
3. receptor-mediated endocytosis: an endocytotic mechanism in which specific molecules are ingested into the cell
Distinguish kinetic and potential energy and recognize examples of each.
Kinetic energy is energy associated with motion
-Heat (thermal energy) is kinetic energy associated with random movement of atoms or molecules
Potential energy is energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure
-Chemical energy is potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction
Predict the consequences of the two laws of thermodynamics on the chemical reactions occurring in cells.
1. energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be transferred and transformed
2. every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy (disorder) of universe
Contrast the relative free energies of reactants and products in endergonic versus exergonic reactions.
-Exergonic: the products have less free energy then the reactants
-Endergonic: the products have more free energy than the reactants
Describe how ATP hydrolysis powers endergonic reactions.
-ATP hydrolysis is the primary method the human body uses to chemically release energy to muscles and other systems in the body necessary to sustain life.
-The chemical ATP is converted to ADP by the loss of a phosphoanhydrous group at the end of the compound, resulting in a release of chemical energy and heat
Describe the roles of enzymes as biological catalysts
enzymes lower activation energy and speed up chemical reactions
Predict the effects of temperature and pH on enzyme activity
-optimum pH results in most enzyme activity, though too high or too low will result in complete loss in activity for the enzyme
-higher the temperature, greater the enzyme activity
Compare and contrast competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors of enzymes.
-A competitive inhibitor will block the enzyme's active site (ie: it will occupy the same space as the natural substrate, blocking it from being catalyzed).
-A non-competitive inhibitor will bind to the enzyme somewhere other than the active site of the enzyme; an allosteric site
Distinguish catabolic from anabolic metabolic pathways
-anabolic pathway requires energy and builds molecules
-catabolic pathway produces energy and breaks down molecules
Define redox reactions.
-Oxidation: substance loses electrons; amount of (partial) positive charge is increased
-Reduction: substance gains electrons; amount of (partial) positive charge is decreased
-Simple redox reaction: transfer of electrons
-Redox reactions convert
NAD+ and NADH
-Redox reactions convert FAD and FADH2
Provide the overall chemical reaction for cellular respiration.
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Energy(ATP)
Describe the overall goal of the four stages of cellular respiration.
to harvest energy from glucose and other energy rich carbon based molecules to make ATP
Define the role of NADH, FADH2 and ATP during cellular respiration.
-NADH and FADH2 deliver high energy electrons to protein pumps in the ETC to build proton gradient
Describe the structure of the electron transport chain and its exact location in the mitochondrion.
-Electrons are passed rapidly from one component to the next to the endpoint of the chain, where the electrons reduce molecular oxygen, producing water
-The electron transport chain is present in multiple copies in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes and the plasma membrane of prokaryotes
Describe the function of ATP synthase.
-uses exergonic flow of protons to drive phosphorylation of ATP
-higher concentration to lower concentration
Explain the source of energy that used to drive ATP synthesis by ATP synthase.
loose H+ ions float back over into the intermembrane space from ETC which are used to drive phosphorylation of ATP
Compare and contrast aerobic respiration and fermentation.
aerobic respiration requires oxygen while fermentation cannot work in the presence of oxygen
Summarize the essential contributions of photosynthesis to the biosphere.
Photosynthesis is the pathway by which energy enters the biosphere
Photosynthesis generates O2
Photosynthesis is the pathway for carbon fixation: synthesis of organic (C-H or C-C containing) compounds from inorganic carbon (CO2) sources
State the overall chemical reaction of photosynthesis.
6 CO2 + 12 H2O + Light energy --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O
Summarize the major stages of photosynthesis, describing their requirements for light, CO2, and H2O.
Step 1: Light Reactions
-ATP and NADPH are produced on the outside of the thylakoids facing the stroma where the Calvin cycle takes place
-The light reactions generate excess ATP via cyclic pathway
-Increase the potential energy of electrons by moving them from H2O to NADPH
Step 2: Calvin Cycle
-Calvin Cycle requires more ATP than NADPH
-The Calvin cycle fixes carbon: converts inorganic carbon, CO2, to a biologically useful form
-The enzyme producing 3-phosphoglycerate must be directly involved in carbon fixation
Explain how light energy is packaged and how its energy is related to wavelength.
Photons are packaged light
higher the wave length the lower the energy
lower the wavelength, higher engery
Assess characteristics of a pigment molecule based on its absorption spectrum.
1. Absorption of light energy dependent on its energy and kind of molecule it hits
2. Electrons occupy discrete energy levels while orbiting in their atoms
3. Specific atoms can absorb only certain photons of light
a. Any given molecule has a characteristic absorption spectrum
b. Can only absorb photons of certain energy level
Explain how light energy is captured by pigment molecules of a photosystem and transferred through the various components of the photosystem.
Photosystem: Network of photosynthetic pigments bound to membranes in thylakoids
a. Each pigment molecule capable of capturing photons
b. Protein lattice holds pigments in close contact
c. Light strikes pigment molecule, energy passes from molecule to molecule
d. Energy reaches key molecule in reaction center, touching membrane-bound protein
e. Energy transferred to protein, passed to series of other proteins
f. Makes ATP, NADPH, and builds organic molecules
Compare and contrast the ATP production during cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Identify the organelles, organelle membranes, and organelles spaces utilized in each process.
cellular respiration: 38 ATP, glycolysis, pyruvate, krebs cycle, and ETC
photosynthesis: 1 ATP, light and calvin cycle
Evaluate the importance of cell division for both unicellular and multi-cellular organisms.
unicellular: important for asexual reproduction
multicellular: important for growth and repair
Identify the stages of the cell cycle, and define the significant event in each stage.
G1: the cell synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for subsequent steps leading to mitosis
S: the part of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated
G2: the second growth period of the cell cycle, following DNA replication and preceding prophase, during which the cell forms the materials that make up the spindle
M: Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle - the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to their parent cell
Identify components of the mitotic spindle and their function in mitosis.
-Microtubules are the major component of the mitotic spindle
-During mitosis, they're used to position the chromosomes at a specific position inside of the cell
Define the significant events in each phase of mitosis.
-G1- growing, happens in interphase
-S-duplicate, happens in interphase
-G2-double check, happens in interphase
-Mitosis-begining of cell division, happens in M Phase
-Cytokinesis- Cell itself divided, happens in M Phase
Prophase-Centrioles move to opposite ends. Spindle fibers form, and chromosomes condense
Metaphase- Chromosomes attach to the spindle fibers and line up at the equator of the cell
Anaphase- Chromosomes are spereated by spindle fiber and chromatids go to the poles
Telophase- Chromatides decondense back into chromatin and 2 new nuclear envelopes form.
Explain the role of meiosis in sexually reproducing organisms (three events that increase genetic variation).
-crossing over during prophase in meiosis I
-random nature of fertilization
-independent assortment of chromosomes
Distinguish haploid cells from diploid cells.
haploid have 23 chromosomes, while diploid have 46 chromosomes
Define the significant events in meiosis I and II
Prophase I -Centrioles move to opposite ends. Spindle fibers form, and chromosomes condense
Metaphase I- Chromosomes attach to the spindle fibers and line up at the equator of the cell
Anaphase I - Chromosomes are spereated by spindle fiber and chromatids go to the poles
Telophase I- Chromatides decondense back into chromatin and 2 new nuclear envelopes form.
Prophase II - Spindle fibers reform, and centrioles move to opposite ends.
Metaphase II- Spindle fibers attach and move to equator in a single file line
Anaphase II - Spindle Fibers shorten and seperate, chromosomes into seperate chromitides and go to poles
Telophase II- Four new nuclei form and cytokinesis follows
Outline Mendel's experiments (both monohybrid and dihybrid crosses) examining patterns of inheritance.
monohybrid- true breeding yellow + green seeds, led to all yellow seeds (F1). F2 generation had 3:1 ratio. yellow was dominant seed color
dihybrid-looks at two characters. found 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio
Relate Mendel's laws to human patterns of inheritance.
Recognize specific examples in which inheritance patterns are not predicted by Mendel's laws of inheritance.
co-dominance: both dominant show up
incomplete dominance: blend together
Explain the chromosomal basis of gender in organisms with X and Y chromosomes.
XY= male (hemizygous)
Define sex-linked genes and recognize sex-linked inheritance pattern.
sex-linked gene: refers to a single gene in a sex chromosome (X)
- Did it skip a generation?
- Was it passed down from the father to son?
No: sex- linked
Describe how recombination frequency and map distance on a chromosome are related for linked genes.
the farther away genes are on a chromosome, the greater the recombination frequency
Describe the subunits and 3D structure of DNA.
made up of nucleotides, which are composed of:
-pentose (5 carbon) sugar (deoxyribose)
-nitrogenous base (A, G, C, T)
-phosphate group attached to a 5 carbon
-width approx. 2 nucleotides
Distinguish the conservative, semi-conservative, and dispersive models of DNA replication.
conservative: both parental strands stay together after DNA replication
semi-conservative: double stranded DNA contains one parental and one daughter strand after replication
dispersive: parental and daughter DNA are interspersed in both strands after replication
Use base pairing rules to predict the sequence of the opposite strand of a given DNA sequence.
Complementary strand A-T, G-C
Describe the functions of each of the enzymes required for DNA replication.
helicase: unwinds DNA
topoisomerase: unwinding of DNA at replication fork creates strain, which topoisomerase relieves
DNA polymerase: synthesis of DNA
ligase: joins together newly synthesized Okazaki frags
primase: adds RNA primer so DNA synthesis can begin
Diagram DNA replication proceeding from each replication fork at the replication bubble.
multiple replication bubbles in eukaryotes, ONE in prokaryotes
Compare and contrast DNA replication of the leading and lagging strand.
leading: continuous synthesis in 3' to 5' direction
lagging: replicated in short sections (Okazaki); joined by ligase; "spot welder"
Describe mechanisms that account for the accuracy of DNA replication.
DNA Polymerase III: main DNA builder, catches copying mistakes and fixes them
Mismatch repair enzymes catch what DNA Polymerase misses
Explain the need for the enzyme telomerase to replicate the ends of linear chromosomes.
telomerase prevents chromosomes from losing base pair sequences at their ends. They also stop chromosomes from fusing to each other
Define the "central dogma" of biology.
-process by which DNA directs protein synthesis
-requires RNA intermediate: mRNA
-occurs in 2 stages
Compare and contrast the two basic steps of gene expression: transcription and translation.
-synthesis of mRNA using DNA template
-requires no change in language
translation: synthesis of polypeptide under the direction of mRNA
-requires change in language
Describe how the genetic code is "read."
-it uses an instruction manual that all cells use to read the DNA sequence of a gene and build a corresponding protein
-Proteins are made of amino acids that are strung together in a chain
-Each 3-letter DNA sequence, or codon, encodes a specific amino acid
Describe the RNA processing steps that occur in eukaryotic cells.
-Addition of a 5' cap (capping).
-Addition of a poly-A tail at the 3' end (polyadenylation)
-RNA splicing to remove intervening sequences (remove introns).
Relate the structure of tRNAs to their function in translation.
-tRNAs transfer amino acids from their cytoplasmic "pool" to the ribosomes, the sites of polypeptide synthesis
-actual interpreters of the genetic code since they match the correct amino acid w/the correct codon on the mRNA being translated
-3' site for covalent attachment to an amino acid
-anticodon recognizes complementary codon on mRNA
-amino acid activation matches tRNAs w/their correct amino acids
-specific amino acid binds to aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
-ATP is the energy source for this process
Describe the events that occur at the three stages of translation.
1. Initiation: mRNA, tRNA and ribosomal subunits form a complex
2. elongation: ribosome travels in 5' to 3' direction synthesizing a polypeptide
3. termination: ribosomes reach a stop codon (UAG, UGA, UAA) and the translational machinery disassembles
Compare and contrast mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA.
-mRNA (messenger): actual copy of genetic information; template for translation
-rRNA (ribosomal): component of ribosomes; part of the catalytic machinery for translation
tRNA (transfer): small RNAs that bring amino acids to the translation machinery
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