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CRCT Survivor 7th Grade Science

This is for Dodgen 7th Grade classes to study CRCT terms.
STUDY
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biomes
a broad, regional type of ecosystem characterized by distinctive climate and soil conditions and a distinctive kind of biological community adapted to those conditions.
tropical rain forest
type of forest near the equator that receives as much as 250 cm of rainfall yearly
savannah
a tropical or subtropical grassland containing scattered trees and drought-resistant undergrowth
temperate
mild, moderate
desert
an area that receives less than 25 centimeters of rain per year
taiga
biome in which the winters are cold but summers are mild enough to allow the ground to thaw
tundra
a vast, level, treeless plain in the arctic regions. The ground beneath the surface of the tundras is frozen even in summer
mountain
land with steep sides that rises sharply (1,000 feet or more) from surrounding land; generally larger and more rugged than a hill
freshwater
does not contain any saltwater and can be rivers, lakes, streams,ponds, and wetlands
estuaries
The lower end of a river, where it meets ocean. Saltwater and freshwater mix here.
marine
covers 70% of earth's surface; largest biome; temperatures vary from region to region;, of or relating to the sea
dichotomous key
step by step approach to identify an organism using a series of paired descriptions
archaebacteria
bacteria that live under extreme conditions such as: high temperature, high salt content, and low oxygen
eubacteria
A kingdom that contains all prokaryotes except archaebacteria
protist
single-celled or simple multicellular eukaryotic organisms that generally do not fit in any other kingdom
fungi
group of simple, plantlike animals that live on dead organic matter
plant
Any multi-cellular autotroph that is incapable of movement. Contains chlorophyll.
animal
multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes that produce sexually and can move
sexual
reproduction in which the genes from two parents join to make an offspring
binary fission
type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells
conjugation
form of sexual reproduction in which paramecia and some prokaryotes exchange genetic information
budding
asexual reproduction in which a part of the parent organism pinches off and forms a new organism
spores
single-celled reproductive bodies highly resistant to cold and heat damage; capable of new organisms
fertilization
process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
regeneration
the ability to regrow a missing part of the body
asexual
a type of reproduction involving only one parent that produces genetically identical offspring by budding or by the division of a single cell or the entire organism into two or more parts
habitat
the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs
community
a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
population
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
species
group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
environment
Every biotic and abiotic factor that surrounds an organism
ecosystem
collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment
abiotic
nonliving, physical features of the environment, including air, water, sunlight, soil, temperature, and climate
biotic
Pertaining to life; environmental factors created by living organisms
Genes
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
Chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
Heredity
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
trait
specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another
genetics
the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms
Punnett square
diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross
probability
the likelihood that a particular event will occur
dominant allele
an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
recessive allele
..., is hidden whenever the dominant allele is present
phenotype
..., The physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its genetic make up.
genotype
..., genetic makeup of an organism
heterozygous
..., having two different alleles for a trait
homozygous
..., having two identical alleles for a trait
hybridization
..., breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms
karyotype
..., A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs
pedigree
..., a diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family
inbreeding
..., continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
clone
..., an organism that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced
genetic engineering
..., process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms
mutation
any event that changes genetic structure
fossils
..., the preserved trace, imprint, or remains of a plant or animal
sedimentary rock
..., A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
homologous structures
..., Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry.
theory
..., a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world
law
..., a generalization that describes recurring facts or events in nature
evolution
..., the process by which species gradually change over time
adaptation
..., inherited characteristic that improves an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
variation
..., any difference between individuals of the same species
natural Selection
..., process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
Darwin's Finches
..., Several species of finches evolved to have different beak shapes to occupy a specific niche on the Galapagos islands.
Peppered Moths
..., supposedly went from light colored to dark "proving" Darwin's natural selection; used as proof of evolution
tissue
..., group of similar cells that perform a particular function
organ
..., a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
organ system
..., group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
organism
..., a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently
digestive system
..., body system the breaks down food and absorbs nutrients
respiratory system
..., system responsible for taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide using the lungs
reproductive system
..., system of organs involved in producing offspring
circulatory system
..., The human body system that contains the heart, blood, and all of the blood vessels. It delivers all the nutrients to the cells
excretory system
..., the system that removes waste from your body and controls water balance
skeletal muscular system
..., The bodily system that is composed of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle tissue and functions in movement of the body or of materials through the body, and heat production.
immune system
..., the cells, tissues, and organs that protect the body from disease. the immune system is composed of the white blood cells, bone marrow, thymus gland, spleen and other parts
#spleen#
..., Organ near the stomach that produces, stores, and eliminates blood cells
nervous system
..., the body's speedy, electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
organelle
a tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell
nucleus
..., a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
cytoplasm
..., a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
cell wall
..., strong layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria
cell membrane
..., a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell
Mitochondria
..., Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
Chloroplast
..., organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
prokaryote
..., a unicellular organism having cells lacking membrane-bound nuclei
eukaryote
..., A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
autotroph
..., an organism that makes its own food
heterotroph
..., organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer
homeostasis
..., process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
DNA
...
diffusion
..., the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
osmosis
..., diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
photosynthesis
..., process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
respiration
..., the process by which cells break down simple food molecules to release the energy they contain
mitosis
..., cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
food web
..., network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem
food chain
..., a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
energy pyramid
..., a diagram that shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web
producer
..., an organism that makes its own food
consumer
..., organisms that obtain food by eating other organisms
evaporation
..., the process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas
condensation
..., The change of state from a gas to a liquid
precipitation
..., the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or mist)
predator
..., any animal that lives by preying on other animals
prey
..., animal hunted or caught for food
symbiosis
..., the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent
parasitism
..., one organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it
mutualism
..., symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
commensalisms
..., a symbiotic relationship in which one member is benefited and the second is neither harmed nor benefited
competition
..., the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
herbivore
..., any animal that feeds chiefly on grass and other plants
carnivore
..., Meat eater
omnivore
..., an animal that eats both plants and animals
scavenger
..., an organism that feeds on dead or decaying material
decomposer
..., organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter