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BYU SFL 333 Chapter 6
Terms in this set (69)
What does the term secondary education refer to?
middle, junior high, high school
According to Jacquelynne Eccles, in order to have a thorough understanding of school and its impact on adolescent development where else do you need to look?
We need to look beyond the classroom - the organization of the whole school, what the demands of the community are
In America today, how likely is it that individuals between the ages of 14 and 17 will be in school?
Text says that "virtually all" in this age range are enrolled in school, so almost 100%. If this question is asking about actual attendance, the number might be very different. (See question 6)
The practice of promoting students from one grade to the next automatically, regardless of their school performance
How does the amount of days per year that American adolescents spend in school today compare with their counterparts from previous decades?
Previous - 162 days in term, students attended 75% of the time
Now - 180 days in terms, students attend 90% of the time (averages)
How likely is the typical student to attend his/her classes throughout the year
75% of fifth graders will eventually graduate on time?
Besides being the chief educational arena for adolescents what other extremely important roles do schools play?
They play a huge role in defining youths' social worlds as well as shaping psychosocial development.
What broader societal changes have been linked to changes in the structure of secondary schools?
Industrialization, urbanization, immigration
What factors moved children out of the workplace?
after industrialization, there were less jobs to be had, so they went to adults first. Protectionists worked to keep children out of the work force because they thought it was dangerous physically (with more machines) and morally
What reasons did social reformers in the early 20th century give in their push for secondary education?
work and society was dangerous for children
improves lives of the poor to have more education
provided more social control on idle and potentially delinquent youth
Americanization for immigrants
Prior to the early twentieth century, what/who were high schools primarily designed for?
They were designed more like colleges and were intended only for the elite and affluent
What is meant by comprehensive high school? For what/whom were they designed?
An educational institution that evolved during the first half of the 20th century, offering a varied curriculum and designed to meet the needs of a diverse population of adolescents
As discussed in the textbook, during the 1950s, how did the U.S. respond when politicians felt the United States had lost its scientific edge to the former Soviet Union?
Schools were called upon to offer more courses in math and science
During the 1970s, on what types of programs did educational reformers seek to promote greater emphasis?
Work-study programs and classes in career education
Noting that international comparisons of student achievement consistently found that American youngsters were faring poorly, and that therefore America was losing its competitive edge in the world market, what did reformers call for?
They called for more academic rigor as a means for preparing young people for the workplace
What are standards-based reforms? What resulted from this movement?
Policies designed to improve achievement by holding schools and students to a predetermined set of standards measured by achievement tests. Educators could not agree on what high school graduates should know/be able to do and students did not fully acquire the knowledge and capabilities assessed on standardized tests
Diane Ravitch, and educational historian, argues that the problem with the comprehensive high school has been a lack of focus. What are the beliefs that she argues have interfered with successful educational reform?
The schools can solve any social or political problem—which has led to our diverting schools from their most important mission, academic instruction
That only a portion of youngsters are capable of benefiting from a high-quality education—which has led to our having vastly different standards from students from different backgrounds
That imparting knowledge is relatively unimportant and that schools should focus on engaging students in activities and experiences—which has watered down the curriculum and led to an approach to instruction that is all process and no content
In trying to find ways to maximize student's success, some research shows that what takes place within a school is probably more important than the nature of its funding and oversight. Based on what you learned from the textbook, what did the researchers argue that schools should focus on?
how we can train, certify, place, and compensate teachers
What do some critics of the No Child Left Behind act argue are unintended consequence of the act? What did President Obama's Education Secretary suggest to address the problem of the state-dependent standards in the No Child Left Behind act?
Critics said that it was having the opposite effect of what was intended, providing incentives for schools to push low-achieving students out of school.
President Obamas secretary stressed the need to have high standard for all students, and a set of common standards. (Now called Common Core and is very controversial lately).
What does educational historian Diane Ravitch believe is the basic problem with the comprehensive public high school?
The basic problem is a lack of focus.
What reasons are experts likely to express for the failure of school reform?
inner city schools kind of throw off results because they have a whole other set of problems (particularly safety)
- huge administrative bureaucracies make it hard to really implement any kind of change
- bigger schools lead to less sense of belonging which leads to disengagement in students
- inner city school students see a lack of jobs where they live and so have less incentive to go through school
What classroom environment is most helpful for learning? Less helpful?
most - medium structure plus high student involvement
- positive student-teacher relationships
- supportive yet demanding, respectful and caring teachers
less - task oriented
- too controlling
- emphasizes competition over cooperation
Is there an optimal class size for learning in high school? Will this be true for all types of students? What about the size of the total school population? Is school size (total enrollment) or classroom size more important? Explain. What seems to be the "ideal" school size
Numerous studies indicate that students achieve more when they attend smaller schools that create a cohesive sense of community. Students in small schools are more likely than students in large schools to be active in a wider range of activities because there aren't as many people to compete against for the spots. It makes them feel needed and important. This is true for all types of students (even those who don't do so well academically still feel a sense of involvement and obligation equal to that of more academically successful students).
School size is more important. Smaller class sizes do not really matter unless there is highly individualized instruction or tutoring.
The ideal size of a high school is between 600 and 900 students.
Define/describe/explain the achievement gap between White and nonwhite youngsters. Give examples.
The achievement gap grew wider in the 1990s especially in large urban school districts. Dropouts more commonly from schools with lots of Blacks and Latinos. In CA, white 8th grade students proficient in math outnumber Latinos in a ratio of 4:1. In high minority concentrated high schools only one sixth of the students are judged as proficient in science.
"Some school counselors assume that ethnic minority or poor youngsters are not capable of handling the work in advanced classes and may automatically assign them to average or remedial classes, where less material is covered and the work is less challenging." (That might not be what Dr. Rollins was going for...I found the information on pg. 193 if anyone wants to double check it.)
Define/describe middle schools.
An educational institution housing seventh- and eighth-grade students along with adolescents who are 1 or 2 years younger.
Describe the recommendations of the Carnegie Corporation Council on Adolescent Development.
Divide middle schools into units of 200-500 students in order to reduce students' feelings of anonymity, hire teachers who have special training in adolescent development, and strengthen ties between schools and the communities in which they are located.
In what areas should parents anticipate disruptions for their adolescent when the family moves to a new town and school? Same question for a student moving from elementary school into middle school (not to a new town).
student's academic motivation and school grades drop as they move from elementary into middle school. The decline in grades is thought to be more a reflection of changes in grading practices and student motivation than in student's knowledge.
In general, school transitions, whenever they occur, can disrupt the academic performance, behavior, and self-image of adolescents, although this effect may be stronger among White students than their ethnic minority peers. This disruption is generally temporary, however.
What changes in school environment does Jacquelynne Eccles describe when moving from elementary school to middle school or junior high school? What does she believe is the source of negative effects on junior high school teachers, which then affects the teachers' interactions with their students?
Not only are junior high schools larger and less personal, but middle and junior high school teachers also hold different beliefs about students than do elementary school teachers--even when they teach students of the same chronological age. They also tend to be more likely to believe that students' abilities are fixed and not easily modified through instruction--a belief that interferes with student's achievement.
Eccles believes that the organization and anonymity of junior high schools have a negative effect on teachers who work in them, which, in turn, affects the way they interact with students.
One study described in the textbook indicated that, among Black and Latino students, transitioning to a school where the proportion of students from the same ethnic background is lower than it had been at their previous school is associated what negative outcomes?
Greater disengagement from school, lower grades, and more frequent absences
What has been found to enhance the adjustment of low-income students in their transition to middle school?
An intervention targeted at their parents. Researches had parents participate in an 11-week program designed to increase their understanding of adolescent development and their effectiveness as parents
Define/describe tracking in schools. Discuss its pros and cons from the perspective of schools, students and parents.
Tracking: The grouping of students, according to ability, into different levels of classes within the same school grade.
Pros: Allows teachers to design class lessons that are more finely tune to students' abilities; tracking may be especially useful in high school, where students must master certain basic skills before they can learn such specialized subjects as science, math, or foreign languages.
Cons: Students who are placed in the remedial track generally receive not just a different education, but a poorer-quality education, than those in the more advanced tracks. When students are tracked, they tend to socialize only with peers from the same academic group, which can polarize the student body into different subcultures that are often hostile toward each other.
What is inclusive tracking? Meritocratic tracking?
Inclusive tracking: permitting a relatively high proportion of students into the highest track (even, perhaps, some students whose abilities do not warrant such placement)
Meritocratic tracking: placing students in tracks that accurately match their abilities
Is there sex bias in tracking? Is there ethnic bias in tracking? Explain
Sex bias: not necessarily. But girls are often talked down to. Teachers often ignore a young woman's interest in science and provides a female student with less challenging math assignments.
Ethnic bias: often
How do boys and girls differ in math from each other in elementary school and then in high school? How is this explained? What impact might it have on either gender?
Although elementary school girls generally outscore boys on tests of math achievement, junior and senior high school boys are more likely to be enrolled in advanced math classes. Studies show that girls are less likely than boys to be moved from a lower math track into a higher one.
What is characteristic of a student's experience in an advanced track at school? What positive and/or negative impact might being placed in a more advanced track have in the life of a student?
- usually better academic achievement
- subsequently have options for classes that explore even more challenging/interesting content
- overall higher educational attainment
ccording to a recent analysis of national data discussed in the textbook, how are Black students tracked differently, even after taking into account students' qualifications?
Black students are especially more likely to be enrolled in lower-track math classes in schools in which Blacks are the minority.
Through what mechanism/s do higher socioeconomic parents help their children become enrolled in higher-track classes?
Middle-class and White students initially placed in lower tracks are more likely to be moved to higher ones, in part because their parents frequently succeed in "lobbying" their child's school for a changed track placement.
It is also the case that adolescents from more well-off families more frequently consult with their parents about what courses to take than do less affluent adolescents, and this leads more affluent students to take more math and science classes.
What criteria is used for placement in a school program for gifted children?
Adolescents who score 130 or higher on an intelligence test are gifted.
Define/describe learning disability. Mainstreaming. What is current federal law regarding the education of children with learning disabilities?
Learning Disability: A difficulty with academic tasks that cannot be traced to an emotional problem or sensory dysfunction.
Mainstreaming: The integration of adolescents who have educational handicaps into regular classrooms.
Current federal law: in the case of adolescents with disabilities, mainstreaming, whenever possible, is required by law
What type of student would be expected to have the most positive academic self-concept?
Those that are a "big fish in a little pond" - those who see themselves as doing pretty well compared to those around them
What concerns might parents have for their daughter who has been diagnosed with a learning disability?
- will she be put in lower track? poorer quality education?
- will the effort be made to mainstream? Will she have a lower self-image there?
What is Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka? What did it bring about? How was this reinforced by the Supreme Court in 2007?
Brown v. Board of Education: the Court found that it was unconstitutional to maintain separate schools for children on the basis of race.
That brought about many school districts adopting measures to make schools more diverse. They did this either by assigning students to schools in a way that would create ethnic diversity or by encouraging voluntary desegregation.
The Supreme Court in 2007 reinforced this by deciding that school districts may no longer use race as a factor in deciding how to assign students to schools.
Define/describe charter schools.
Charter schools: a publicly funded independent school established by teachers, parents, or community groups under the terms of a charter with a local or national authority. (found online)
Public schools that have been given the autonomy to establish their own curricula and teaching practices (glossary)
How are students likely to feel about attending a multiethnic school compared to schools that are less well balanced?
They feel safer, less lonely, and less harassed in relatively more diverse schools than in schools that are less balanced
What alternative options do parents have that are disappointed with the education their child is receiving in public high school?
Private schools, charter schools, magnet schools.
According to the textbook, why do private school students academically outperform students at public schools?
This appears to be due more to the characteristics of the students who attend them than to the private schools themselves.
Define/describe the zero-tolerance approach to violence in schools.
No violence allowed. Serious penalties for even first infractions
As discussed in your text, what are the major characteristics of good schools?
staff and students committed to quality education
- teachers committed to students and have more autonomy from admin to teach as they see best
- schools is integrated with the community
- high quality teachers
- good classrooms (see Q 23)
According to the textbook, how do researchers explain the fact that the availability of private schools in urban areas has contributed to racial segregation?
In urban areas, the availability of private schools contributes to racial segregation, because many White students who would otherwise attend their neighborhood public school attend private school instead.
Describe the factors associated with higher performance of students as a result of the social capital in Catholic schools relative to other schools.
A Catholic school is a community in which parents, teachers, and students all share similar values and attitudes. This strong community generates interpersonal resources that, like financial capital, give "richer" students advantages over "poorer" students.
The lessons taught in catholic school are reinforced at home, at church, and in the neighborhood. The links between home and school are stronger. In addition, private schools typically assign more homework and are more orderly and disciplined.
Define/describe school climate. What influence does it have on adolescents' learning and psychosocial development?
How teachers interact with students, how classroom time is used, and what sorts of standards and expectations teachers hold for their students.
A positive climate--where relationships between students and teachers are positive, and teachers are both supportive and demanding--enhances adolescents' psychological well-being as well as their achievement.
What teaching style is characterized by setting high standards for students but being very responsive to their needs?
Teachers who are both supportive and demanding, who encourage students' participation while keeping the class in control
Teachers who spend a high proportion of time on lessons, being and end lessons on time, provide clear feedback about what is expected of students and about their performance, and give ample praise to students when they perform well
According to a national survey, how many students in American public schools have been victims of violence?
1 out of every 4 students has been a victim of violence in or around school
How has the number of school shootings changed since the 1990s? The number of student deaths as a result of school violence?
The number of school shootings has actually declined since the early 1990s; there has been an increase in the number of student deaths in schools, but this is due to the use of automatic weapons (which tends to leave more victims) and not to any increase in the number of shootings.
What type of student is most likely to be a victim of a homicide in schools?
How skilled are school officials at identifying which students are most likely to be involved in school shootings?
It is virtually impossible to predict which students will commit acts of lethal violence. Boys, students with mental health problems, and adolescents who have easy access to guns are more likely than others to be involved in school shootings, but identifying the specific students with these characteristics who will commit lethal crimes in school is a different matter altogether.
Define/describe the self-fulfilling prophecy with regard to education
the idea that students become what the teachers expect of them
Define/describe the big-fish-little pond effect.
The reason that individuals who attend high school with high achieving peers feel worse about themselves than comparably successful individuals with lower achieving peers.
Define/describe student engagement.
Student Engagement: The extent to which students are psychologically committed to learning and mastering the material rather than simply completing the assigned wor
Generalizing from the text, what type of student would benefit most from summer school?
Today, approximately what percent of high school graduates enroll in college immediately after graduation?
70% of White high school grads & 60% of Black and Hispanic high school grads
What two dominant characteristics distinguish the development of postsecondary education in contemporary America from that in other parts of the world?
diversity and accessibility
Based on the textbook, how can postsecondary education best be described in most other industrialized nations?
Rather than housing all high school students in comprehensive high schools such as those found in the US, most other industrialized nations separate students during early or middle adolescence into schools for college-bound youngsters and schools designed to provide vocational and technical education.
Of the students who enter college, what percent complete their degrees within six years?
Fewer than 60%
Define/describe No Child Left Behind Act.
NCLB is written so that it requires 100% of students (including special education students and those from disadvantaged background) within a school to reach the same set of state standards in math and reading by the year 2014. One of the main criticisms of NCLB is that it forces teachers to lower their overall educational goals and "teach to the test."
Define/describe "schools within schools" in larger high schools. With what outcomes are these associated?
Subdivisions of the student body within large schools created to foster feelings of belongingness
What is the paradox of dropping out of school?
Those students who are most likely to leave school prior to graduation may be the most harmed by doing so.
What happens to the scores of students with higher socioeconomic status and disadvantaged students during the school year, as compared to the summer months?
Among students with higher SES, rates of academic progress during the school year and during the summer were comparable. Among disadvantaged students, however, the pattern was different. Although their rates of progress during the school year were more or less equal to those of higher SES students, during those summer months, disadvantaged students' scores declined.
According to adolescents, what is the best thing about school?
being with friends and meeting new people
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