Terms in this set (13)
Arrest of suspect(s)
Interview plan & coordinating officer
Reasons for arrest
Reasons for not arresting
Post arrest plan
Interview development strategy
(Discuss the position of policy and strategy)
Issues involved in developing an arrest strategy
- Powers relating to arrest & detention;
- Searches allied to the arrest;
- Timing and location of arrest (underpinning intelligence)
Power of arrest
- Arrests in most major investigations are likely to generate publicity.
- In an increasingly litigious society, errors are likely to lead to civil litigation or have the effect of eroding public confidence in the enquiry or service in general.
- The SIO must be in a position to justify the reasons for an arrest.
Some arrest strategies, especially if there are to be several arrests are likely to have serious financial ramifications for individual forces.
Arrest - PACE 1984
The legislative requirements are set out in secs. 24-28 of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PaCE) 1984, as amended by sec. 110 of the Serious and Organised Crime and Police Act 2005 and Code G of the PaCE Codes of Practice.
It is the responsibility of all officers to comply with the legislation when arresting suspects
Searches related to an arrest
- Powers under sections 17, 18, & 32 may be relevant at the time of arrest.
- The arrest strategy must link to and support the search strategy.
- Arrest teams also need to be fully aware of the relevant powers of entry, use of force and seizure legislation
Timing of arrest
- The way in which the identity of a suspect is discovered will have an impact on how where and when an arrest should be made.
- Ideally, an arrest should not take place until the suspect(s) has been fully researched. However, circumstances may require an immediate arrest. (e.g. suspect leaving the UK)
- Good description of the suspect;
- Recent photograph of the suspect;
- The likelihood of the suspect being violent;
- Whether the suspect has got access to firearms or other weapons and/or is likely to use them;
- The suspect's previous criminal history;
- Any evidence of 'bad character';
- The suspect's lifestyle, associates and places frequented;
- Premises to which the suspect has access;
- Vehicles the suspect has access to and their pattern of movements;
- Detailed plans of premises in which the arrest is likely to take place;
- The history of any premises in which the arrest is likely to take place (e.g. previous searches, other occupants);
- Access to communications;
- Impact on the community.
The main issues involved in implementing an arrest strategy are:
Planning an arrest;
Planning an arrest
- Planning and preparation of an arrest is likely to result in a well run operation.
- Flexibility is important as circumstances may arise that require the plan to be modified and adapted, but it's aims and objectives should be pursued.
Any arrest plan will centre on three issues:
The SIO has a legal obligation to consider the safety of officers, public & suspects. This means conducting a risk assessment and employing 'control measures' as necessary.
- Eg If the circumstances of the offence under investigation, or intelligence, suggests that the suspect might have access to a firearm, consideration must be given to deploying armed officers in the arrest.
If intelligence suggests the suspect is likely to be violent, then plans should be developed accordingly, including providing arresting officers with
Contingency plans should be drawn up for any 'reasonably foreseeable' occurrence.
- Arrest team (s) more than one suspect? - (be aware of forensic contamination)
- Arrest coordinator?.
- Exhibits & SOCO at each arrest location.
- An 'appropriate adult' for juvenile or vulnerable suspect.
- Arrest scene guard(s)
- Support team(s) to control / manage other people likely to be present.
- Specialist support / equipment (e.g. MoE, COSHH, PPE, media liaison).
- Video-recording team / equipment for the arrest and subsequent search.
- ID suspects location / pattern of behaviour (e.g., at their home address using surveillance);
- How the arrests will be coordinated. (including police stations to be used);
- Alerting the custody officer to likely prisoners;
- Authority for searches and samples.
Officers who will be involved in the arrests should be thoroughly briefed beforehand.
Each officer should be made fully aware of the operation, the following should be addressed:
- Summary of investigation, believed role of suspect and reason for arrest;
- Full details of suspect, (antecedent history;
- Likelihood of the suspect being violent, including access to weapons.
- Detailed description of suspect & recent photograph of suspect;
- Briefings specifically address such issues and include the steps to take to manage the risk (e.g., deployment of firearms officers, use of shields, protective clothing);
that they have been deprived of their liberty
the nature of the offence (e.g., murder)
where and when the offence was committed
the criterion or criteria making the arrest necessary (e.g., for the prompt and effective investigation of the offence)