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44 terms

Psychology ch 4 and 6

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Sensation
awareness due to a stimulus of a sensory organ
Perception
the organization, identification, and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation
synesthesia
the experience of one sense that is evoked by another
transduction
what takes place when many sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into neural signals sent to the central nervous system
psychophysics
methods that measure the strength of a stimulus and the observer's sensitivity to that stimulus
Absolute threshold
the minimal intensity needed to barely detect a stimulus
(JND) Just noticeable difference
the minimal change in a stimulus that can just barely be detected
Weber's Law
The just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity
Signal detection theory
the response to a stimulus depends both on a person's sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of noise and on a person's response criterion
visual acuity
ability to see fine detail
retina
light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eyeball
accommodation
the process by which the eye maintains a clear image on the retina
cones
detect color, operate under normal daylight conditions, and allow us to focus on fine detail
Rods
become active only under low-light for night vision
fovea
an area of the retina where vision is the clearest and there are no rods at all
blind spot
contains neither rods or cones and therefore has no mechanism to sense light
receptive field
the region of the sensory surface that, when stimulated, causes a change in the firing rate of that neuron
monocular depth cues
aspect of a scene that yield info about depth when viewed with only one eye
binocular disparity
the difference in the retinal image of the two eyes that provides info about depth
ames room
...
apparent motion
the perception of movement is a result of alternating signals appearing in rapid succession in different locations
pitch
how high or low a sound is
loudness
sounds intensity
above 85 decibels can be damaging
...
cochlea
a fluid filled tube that is the organ of auditory transduction
basilar membrane
a structure in the inner ear that undulates when vibrations from the ossicles reach the cochlear fluid
hair cells
specialized auditory receptor neurons embedded in the basilar membrane
place code
used mainly for high pitch frequencies, is active when the cochlea encodes different frequencies at different locations along the basilar membrane
temporal lobe
registers low frequencies via the firing rate of action potentials entering the auditory nerve
Haptic perception
results from our active exploration of the environment by touching and grasping objects with our hands
A-delta fibers
which transmit the initial sharp pain
C fibers
which transmit longer-lasting, duller pain
gate-control theory
A theory of pain perception based on the idea that signals arriving from pain receptors in the body can be stopped
vestibular membrane
the three fluid-filled semicircular canals and adjacent organs located next to the cochlea
olfaction
smell
gustation
taste
olfactory receptor neurons
receptor cells that initiate the sense of smell
olfactory bulb
a brain structure located above the nasal cavity beneath the frontal lobes
Pheromones
biochemical odorants emitted by other membranes of their species that can affect the animal's behavior or physiology
taste buds
the organ of taste transduction
memory
The ability to store and retrieve info over time.
encoding
The process by which we transform what we feel, hear and see into a memory
storage
The process of maintaining information in memory over time
retrieval
the process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded.