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Final Quiz 3

Terms in this set (33)

- the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically.
- Christianity and colonialism are often closely associated because Catholicism and Protestantism were the religions of the European colonial powers and acted in many ways as the "religious arm" of those powers.
- Christian missionaries were initially portrayed as "visible saints, exemplars of ideal piety in a sea of persistent savagery"
- however, by the time the colonial era drew to a close in the last half of the twentieth century, missionaries became viewed as "ideological shock troops for colonial invasion whose zealotry blinded them", colonialism's "agent, scribe and moral alibi."
- Christianity is targeted by critics of colonialism because the tenets of the religion were used to justify the actions of the colonists
- during the Age of Discovery, the Catholic Church inaugurated a major effort to spread Christianity in the New World and to convert the Native Americans and other indigenous people.
- the missionary effort was a major part of, and a partial justification for the colonial efforts of European powers such as Spain, France and Portugal.
- Christian Missions to the indigenous peoples ran hand-in-hand with the colonial efforts of Catholic nations.
- in the Americas and other colonies in Asia and Africa, most missions were run by religious orders such as the Augustinians, Franciscans, Jesuits and Dominicans
- The European colonial period was the era from the 15th century to 1914 when countries such as Spain, Portugal, Britain, Russia, Sweden, France, the Netherlands, Germany, Italy and Belgium established colonies outside Europe
- Christian missionaries were active in practically all of Europe's colonies
- targeted by "On Confessions" by Bartolome de las Casas
- the Spanish crown sent a royal governor, Fray Nicolás de Ovando, who established the formal encomienda system.
- based on the cooperation of the encomendero and of the doctrinero
- the encomendero, usually a conquistador or his descendant, was to supervise the integration of his native wards into the social and economic life of Europe and help the doctrinero (teacher) establish the cultural and religious patterns of Christianity
- a labor system in Spain and its empire
- rewarded conquerors with the labor of particular groups of subject people
- first established in Spain during the Roman period, but used also following the Christian conquest of Muslim territories. It was applied on a much larger scale during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and the Philippines
- conquered peoples were considered vassals of the Spanish monarch
- The Crown awarded an encomienda as a grant to a particular individual
- in the conquest era of the sixteenth century, the grants were considered to be a monopoly on the labor of particular groups of Indians, held in perpetuity by the grant holder, called the encomendero, and his descendants
- in the encomienda, the Spanish Crown granted a person a specified number of natives from a specific community
- indigenous leaders were charged with mobilizing the assessed tribute and labor
- encomenderos were to ensure the native people were given instruction in the Christian faith and Spanish language, and protect them from warring tribes or pirates; they had to suppress rebellion against Spaniards, and maintain infrastructure
- the natives would provide tributes in the form of metals, maize, wheat, pork, or other agricultural products
- Indian lands were to remain in the possession of their communities. This right was formally protected by the crown of Castile because the rights of administration in the New World belonged to this crown and not to the Catholic monarchs as a whole
- in many cases natives were forced to do hard labor and subjected to extreme punishment and death if they resisted
- Scotland was one of the centers of European Enlightenment and a beacon of education in part due to the Protestant Reformation
- the period in 18th and early 19th century Scotland characterized by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments
- by the eighteenth century, Scotland had a network of parish schools in the Lowlands and four universities (England had two)
- the Enlightenment culture was based on close readings of new books; intense discussions took place daily at such intellectual gathering places in Edinburgh as The Select Society and, later, The Poker Club as well as within Scotland's ancient universities (St Andrews, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Aberdeen)
- John Knox wanted a school in every parish in every county; he wanted everyone to have the ability to read the Bible
- Adam Smith laid the foundations for, and developed, what is now modern capitalism (classical free market economy, division of labor, The Wealth of Nations); he was interested in Greek and Roman society, devoting himself to philosophical life
- ties to the European intellectual scene
- sharing the humanist and rationalist outlook of the European Enlightenment of the same time period, the thinkers of the Scottish Enlightenment asserted the importance of human reason combined with a rejection of any authority that could not be justified by reason
- in Scotland, the Enlightenment was characterized by a thoroughgoing empiricism and practicality where the chief values were improvement, virtue, and practical benefit for the individual and society as a whole
- among the fields that rapidly advanced were philosophy, political economy, engineering, architecture, medicine, geology, archaeology, law, agriculture, chemistry and sociology
- among the Scottish thinkers and scientists of the period were Francis Hutcheson, David Hume, Adam Smith, Dugald Stewart, Thomas Reid, Robert Burns, Adam Ferguson, John Playfair, Joseph Black and James Hutton.
- had effects far beyond Scotland, not only because of the esteem in which Scottish achievements were held outside Scotland, but also because its ideas and attitudes were carried all over Europe and across the Atlantic world as part of the Scottish diaspora, and by European and American students who studied in Scotland (academic currents)
- the changes in the shift from Medieval to Modern include the rise of the nation-state (tied in with colonialism)
- the changes also impacted the way Europe relates to the world as dominating other counties demonstrated superiority and missionary activities increased
- the intellectual changes that came included as the key aspect the study of ancient languages (return to classical wisdom), not just the return to the original languages for the Bible but also for architecture, culture, and more.
- the newfound freedom to question authorities of the Church was liberating to intellectual life
- a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
- among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then by reactions of horror to World War I.
- Modernism also rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and many modernists rejected religious belief

Modernism in the Catholic Church:

- a loose gestalt of liberal theological opinions that developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
- the term came to prominence in Pope Pius X's 1907 encyclical Pascendi dominici gregis, which synthesizes and condemns modernism as embracing every heresy
- the movement was influenced by Protestant theologians and clergy, starting with the Tübingen School in the mid-19th century
- Pope Pius charged that it was prominent in French and British intellectual circles and, to a lesser extent, in Italy
- the term is generally used by critics of rather than adherents to positions associated with it
- may be described under these headings:

1. A rationalistic approach to the Bible. The rationalism that was characteristic of the Enlightenment took a protomaterialistic view of miracles and of the historicity of biblical narratives. This approach sought to interpret the Bible by focusing on the text itself as a prelude to considering what the Church Fathers had traditionally taught about it. This method was readily accepted by Protestants and Anglicans. It was the natural consequence of Martin Luther's sola scriptura doctrine, which asserts that Scripture is the highest authority, and that it can be relied on alone in all things pertaining to salvation and the Christian life.

2. Secularism and other Enlightenment ideals. The ideal of secularism can be briefly stated as follows: the best course of action in politics and other civic fields is that which flows from a common understanding of the Good by various groups and religions. By implication, Church and State should be separated and the laws of the latter, for example that forbidding murder, should cover only the common ground of thought systems held by various religious groups. From the secularists' point of view it was possible to distinguish between political ideas and structures that were religious and those that were not, but Catholic theologians in the mainstream argued, following St. Thomas Aquinas, that such a distinction was not possible: All aspects of society were to be organized with the final goal of Heaven in mind.

3. Modern philosophical systems. Philosophers such as Kant and Bergson inspired the mainstream of modernist thought. One of the latter's main currents attempted to synthesize the vocabularies, epistemologies, metaphysics and other features of certain modern systems of philosophy with Catholicism in much the same way as the Scholastic order had earlier attempted to synthesize Platonic and Aristotelian philosophy with the Church's teaching.

4. Theological rebellion in contradistinction or opposition to the Church's official policies

- Theology, formerly "queen of the sciences", was dethroned, and it was argued that religion must primarily be caused by, and thus be centered on, the feelings of believers. This argument bolsters the impact of secularism by weakening any position supporting the favoring of one religion over another in a given state, on the principle that if no scientific and reasonable assumption of its truth can be made, society should not be so organized as to privilege any particular religion
- Pope Pius X frequently condemned both its aims and ideas, and was deeply concerned by the ability of modernism to allow its adherents to go on believing themselves strict Catholics while having an understanding markedly different from the traditional one as to what that meant
- most Church authorities have largely dropped the term "modernism", preferring instead in the interest of precision to call beliefs such as secularism, liberalism or relativism by their several names.
- the term has however remained current in the usage of many Traditionalist Catholics and conservative critics within the Church
- has come to be applied to a tendency among certain groups—mainly, though not exclusively, in religion—that is characterized by a markedly strict literalism as it is applied to certain specific scriptures, dogmas, or ideologies, and a strong sense of the importance of maintaining in-group and outgroup distinctions, leading to an emphasis on purity and the desire to return to a previous ideal from which advocates believe members have strayed
- rejection of diversity of opinion as applied to these established "fundamentals" and their accepted interpretation within the group is often the result of this tendency

Christian Fundamentalism:

- began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries among British and American Protestants as a reaction to theological liberalism and cultural modernism
- fundamentalists argued that 19th-century modernist theologians had misinterpreted or rejected certain doctrines, especially biblical inerrancy, that they viewed as the fundamentals of the Christian faith.
- fundamentalists are almost always described as having a literal interpretation of the Bible.
- a few scholars regard Catholics who reject modern theology in favor of more traditional doctrines as fundamentalists
- in keeping with traditional Christian doctrines concerning biblical interpretation, the role Jesus plays in the Bible, and the role of the church in society, fundamentalists usually believe in a core of Christian beliefs that include the historical accuracy of the Bible and all its events as well as the Second Coming of Jesus Christ.
- Fundamentalism as a movement manifested in various denominations with various theologies, rather than a single denomination or systematic theology
- it became active in the 1910s after the release of The Fundamentals, a twelve-volume set of essays, apologetic and polemic, written by conservative Protestant theologians to defend what they saw as Protestant orthodoxy.
- the movement became more organized in the 1920s within U.S. Protestant churches, especially Baptist and Presbyterian ones

Catholic Fundamentalism:

- some scholars describe certain Catholics as fundamentalists
- such Catholics believe in a literal interpretation of both doctrines and Vatican declarations, particularly those pronounced by the Pope, and believe that individuals who do not agree with the magisterium are condemned by God.
- Lutheran scholar Martin E. Marty described Catholic fundamentalists as advocating mass in Latin and mandatory clerical celibacy while opposing ordination of women priests and rejecting artificial birth control.
- The Society of St. Pius X, a product of Marcel Lefebvre, is cited as a stronghold of Catholic fundamentalism.
- Catholic theologian Ronald L. Conte Jr. has described Catholic fundamentalism on the basis of three main features: (1) over-simplification of beliefs, (2) dogmatization of those beliefs, (3) villainization of everyone outside the group. He applied the term to Catholics both on the right and on the left (liberal and conservative).


- Fundamentalists' literal interpretation of the Bible has been criticized by practitioners of Biblical criticism for failing to take into account the circumstances in which the Christian Bible was written.
- critics claim that this "literal interpretation" is not in keeping with the message the scripture intended to convey when it was written, and that it uses the Bible for political purposes by presenting God "more as a God of judgement and punishment than as a God of love and mercy"
- Fundamentalists have attempted and continue to attempt to teach intelligent design, a hypothesis with creationism as its base, in lieu of evolution in public schools.
- this has resulted in legal challenges such as the federal case (Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District) which resulted in the United States District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania ruling the teaching of intelligent design to be unconstitutional due to its religious roots
- Confessional Lutheran churches reject the fundamentalist position and believe that all biblical teachings are essential
- as, according to Lutheran apologists, Martin Luther said, "The doctrine is not ours, but God's, and we are called to be his servants. Therefore we cannot waver or change the smallest point of doctrine""
- a document the Holy See under Pope Pius IX issued on December 8, 1864 (the Feast of the Immaculate Conception) as an annex to the Quanta cura encyclical.

Holy See: also referred to as the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity

- it condemned a total of 80 errors or heresies, and through that promulgated Catholic Church teaching on a number of philosophical and political questions, and referred to documents issued previously

promulgated: to promote, make widely known

- reaction amongst Catholics was mixed, while that coming from Protestants was uniformly negative.
- it remains a controversial document, and has been cited on numerous occasions by both Catholic traditionalists seeking to uphold traditional Catholic values and anti-Catholics seeking to criticize the church's positions
- made up of phrases and paraphrases from earlier papal documents, along with index references to them, and presented as a list of "condemned propositions".
- for instance, in condemning proposition 14, "Philosophy is to be treated without taking any account of supernatural revelation", the Syllabus asserts the truth of the contrary proposition—that philosophy should take account of supernatural revelation.
- the Syllabus does not explain why each particular proposition is wrong, but cites earlier documents for similar or identical statements.
- except for some propositions drawn from Pius' encyclical Qui pluribus of November 9, 1846, most were based on documents after the Revolutions of 1848 shocked the Pope and the papacy
- The Syllabus was divided into ten sections which condemned as false various statements about the following topics: "Errors about...

1. pantheism, naturalism, and absolute rationalism, Propositions 1-7
2. moderate rationalism, Propositions 8-14
3. indifferentism and latitudinarianism, Propositions 15-18
4. socialism, communism, secret societies, Bible societies, and liberal clerical societies, a general condemnation, unnumbered
5. the Catholic Church and her rights, Propositions 19-38 (defending temporal power in the Papal States, which were overthrown six years later)
6. civil society and its relationship to the church, Propositions 39-55
7. natural and Christian ethics, Propositions 56-64
8. Christian marriage, Propositions 65-74
9. the civil power of the sovereign Pontiff in the Papal States, Propositions 75-76
10. liberalism in every political form, Propositions 77-80.

- controversy following document's release over whether or not there was misinterpretation of the condemnations
- was convoked by Pope Pius IX on 29 June 1868, after a period of planning and preparation that began on 6 December 1864.
- this, the twentieth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, held three centuries after the Council of Trent, opened on 8 December 1869 and adjourned on 20 October 1870.
- unlike the five earlier general councils held in Rome, which met in the Lateran Basilica and are known as Lateran councils, it met in the Vatican Basilica, hence its name.
- its best-known decision is its definition of papal infallibility
- the council was convoked to deal with the contemporary problems of the rising influence of rationalism, liberalism, and materialism.
- its purpose was, besides this, to define the Catholic doctrine concerning the Church of Christ.
- there was discussion and approval of only two constitutions: the Dogmatic Constitution on the Catholic Faith and the First Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ, the latter dealing with the primacy and infallibility of the Bishop of Rome.
- the first matter brought up for debate was the dogmatic draft of Catholic doctrine against the manifold errors due to rationalism
- the proposal to define papal infallibility itself as dogma met with resistance, not because of doubts about the substance of the proposed definition, but because some considered it inopportune to take that step at that time
- majority of the bishops were not so much interested in a formal definition of papal infallibility as they were in strengthening papal authority and, because of this, were willing to accept the agenda of the infallibilists.
- a minority, some 10 per cent of the bishops, opposed the proposed definition of papal infallibility on both ecclesiastical and pragmatic grounds, because, in their opinion, it departed from the ecclesiastical structure of the early Christian church
- they feared that defining papal infallibility would alienate some Catholics, create new difficulties for union with non-Catholics, and provoke interference by governments in ecclesiastical affairs
- the dogmatic constitution on the Catholic faith Dei Filius was adopted unanimously
- the draft presented to the council on 8 March drew no serious criticism, but a group of 35 English-speaking bishops, who feared that the opening phrase of the first chapter, "Sancta romana catholica Ecclesia" (the holy roman catholic Church), might be construed as favoring the Anglican branch theory, later succeeded in having an additional adjective inserted, so that the final text read: "Sancta catholica apostolica romana Ecclesia" (the holy catholic apostolic roman Church).
- the constitution thus set forth the teaching of the "Holy Catholic Apostolic Roman Church" on God, revelation and faith
- Pastor aeternus (document) defines four doctrines of the Catholic faith: the apostolic primacy conferred on Peter, the perpetuity of the Petrine Primacy in the Roman pontiffs, the meaning and power of the papal primacy, and Papal infallibility - infallible teaching authority (magisterium) of the Pope
- there was stronger opposition to the draft constitution on the nature of the church, which at first did not include the question of papal infallibility, but the majority party in the council, whose position on this matter was much stronger, brought it forward.
- it was decided to postpone discussion of everything in the draft except infallibility.
- the decree did not go forward without controversy
- the dogmatic constitution states that the Pope has "full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the whole Church" (chapter 3:9)
- none of the bishops who had argued that proclaiming the definition was inopportune refused to accept it.
- some Catholics, mainly of German language and largely inspired by the historian Ignaz von Döllinger, formed the separate Old Catholic Church in protest
- discussion of the rest of the document on the nature of the church was to continue when the bishops returned after a summer break.
- however, the Franco-Prussian War broke out.
- with the swift German advance and the capture of Emperor Napoleon III, French troops protecting papal rule in Rome withdrew from the city.
- consequently, on 20 September 1870, one month after the Kingdom of Italy had occupied Rome, Pope Pius IX, who then considered himself a prisoner in the Vatican, issued the bull Postquam Dei munere, adjourning the council indefinitely
- addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world.
- it was the twenty-first and most recent ecumenical council of the Catholic Church and the second to be held at St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican.
- the council, through the Holy See, formally opened under the pontificate of Pope John XXIII on 11 October 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI on the Feast of the Immaculate Conception on 8 December 1965.
- several changes resulted from the council, including the renewal of consecrated life with a revised charism, ecumenical efforts towards dialogue with other religions, and the universal call to holiness, which according to Pope Paul VI was "the most characteristic and ultimate purpose of the teachings of the Council"
- according to Pope Benedict XVI, the most important and essential message of the council is "the Paschal Mystery as the center of what it is to be Christian and therefore of the Christian life, the Christian year, the Christian seasons".
- other changes which followed the council included the widespread use of vernacular languages in the Mass instead of Latin, the subtle disuse of ornate clerical regalia, the revision of Eucharistic prayers, the abbreviation of the liturgical calendar, the ability to celebrate the Mass versus populum (with the officiant facing the congregation), as well as ad orientem (facing the "East" and the Crucifix), and modern aesthetic changes encompassing contemporary Catholic liturgical music and artwork.
- many of these changes remain divisive among the Catholic faithful
- in the 1950s, theological and biblical studies in the Catholic Church had begun to sway away from the Neo-Scholasticism and biblical literalism which a reaction to Catholic modernism had enforced since the First Vatican Council
- this shift could be seen in theologians such as Karl Rahner, Michael Herbert, and John Courtney Murray who looked to integrate modern human experience with church principles based on Jesus Christ, as well as others such as Yves Congar, Joseph Ratzinger and Henri de Lubac, who looked to an accurate understanding of scripture and the early Church Fathers as a source of renewal (ressourcement)
- the world's bishops faced challenges driven by political, social, economic, and technological change.
- some of these bishops sought new ways of addressing those challenges.
- The First Vatican Council had been held nearly a century before but had been cut short in 1870 when the Italian Army entered the city of Rome at the end of Italian unification.
- as a result, only deliberations on the role of the papacy and the congruent relationship of faith and reason were completed, with examination of pastoral issues concerning the direction of the Church left unaddressed
- Pope John XXIII gave notice of his intention to convene the Council on 25 January 1959, less than three months after his election in October 1958.
- this sudden announcement, which caught the Curia by surprise, caused little initial official comment from Church insiders.
- reaction to the announcement was widespread and largely positive from both religious and secular leaders outside the Catholic Church, and the council was formally summoned by the apostolic constitution Humanae Salutis on 25 December 1961
- 13 October 1962 marked the initial working session of the Council
- election for commissions expected to do most of the work of the Council.
- eleven commissions and three secretariats were established, with their respective presidents
- four periods of the council:

1. Opening and Commissions - preparations for the sessions scheduled for 1963. These preparations were halted upon the death of Pope John XXIII on 3 June 1963, since an ecumenical council is automatically interrupted and suspended upon the death of the Pope who convened it, until the next Pope orders the council to be continued or dissolved. Pope Paul VI was elected on 21 June 1963 and immediately announced that the Council would continue

2. September 29, 1963 - opening address stressed pastoral nature of the council and set out four purposes for it: to define more fully the nature of the Church and the role of the bishop, to renew the Church, to restore unity among all Christians, including seeking pardon for Catholic contributions to separation, and to start a dialogue with the contemporary world. During this period, the bishops approved the constitution on the liturgy, Sacrosanctum Concilium, and the decree on social communication, Inter mirifica. Work went forward with the schemata on the Church, bishops and dioceses, and ecumenism. On 8 November 1963, Josef Frings criticized the Holy Office, and drew an articulate and impassioned defense by its Secretary, Alfredo Ottaviani. This exchange is often considered the most dramatic of the council. It ended December 4th.

3. September 14, 1964 - the Council Fathers worked through a large volume of proposals. Schemata on ecumenism (Unitatis redintegratio); the official view on Protestant and Eastern Orthodox "separated brethren", the Eastern Rite churches (Orientalium Ecclesiarum); and the Dogmatic Constitution of the Church (Lumen gentium) 'were approved and promulgated by the Pope′. Schemata on the life and ministry of priests and the missionary activity of the Church were rejected and sent back to commissions for complete rewriting. Work continued on the remaining schemata, in particular those on the Church in the modern world and religious freedom. There was controversy over revisions of the decree on religious freedom and the failure to vote on it during the third period, but Pope Paul promised that this schema would be the first to be reviewed in the next period. Pope Paul closed the third period on 21 November by announcing a change in the Eucharistic fast and formally reaffirming Mary as "Mother of the Church".

4. September 14, 1965 - opened with the establishment of the Synod of Bishops. This more permanent structure was intended to preserve close cooperation of the bishops with the Pope after the council. The first business of the fourth period was the consideration of the decree on religious freedom, Dignitatis humanae, one of the more controversial of the conciliar documents. The principal work of the other part of the period was work on three documents, all of which were approved by the Council Fathers. The lengthened and revised pastoral constitution on the Church in the modern world, Gaudium et spes, was followed by decrees on missionary activity, Ad gentes and the ministry and life of priests, Presbyterorum ordinis. The council also gave final approval to other documents that had been considered in earlier sessions. They included the Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation (Dei verbum), decrees on the pastoral office of bishops (Christus Dominus), the life of persons in religious orders (expanded and modified from earlier sessions, finally titled Perfectae caritatis), education for the priesthood (Optatam totius), Christian education (Gravissimum educationis), and the role of the laity (Apostolicam actuositatem). One of the more controversial documents was Nostra aetate, which stated that the Jews of the time of Christ, taken indiscriminately, and all Jews today are no more responsible for the death of Christ than Christians. A major event of the final days of the council was the act of Pope Paul and Orthodox Patriarch Athenagoras of a joint expression of regret for many of the past actions that had led up to the Great Schism between the western and eastern churches.

- key content and issues:

1. Liturgy - the liturgy, especially the Eucharist, which makes the Paschal Mystery present, is "the summit toward which the activity of the Church is directed; at the same time it is the font from which all her power flows." The matter that had the most immediate effect on the lives of individual Catholics was the revision of the liturgy. The central idea was that there ought to be lay participation in the liturgy which means they "take part fully aware of what they are doing, actively engaged in the rite, and enriched by its effects." In the mid-1960s, permissions were granted to celebrate most of the Mass in vernacular languages, including the canon from 1967 onwards. The amount of Scripture read during Mass was greatly expanded through the introduction of multiple year lectionaries. Neither the Second Vatican Council nor the subsequent revision of the Roman Missal abolished Latin as the liturgical language of the Roman Rite: the official text of the Roman Missal, on which translations into vernacular languages are to be based, continues to be in Latin and it can still be used in the celebration

2. Ecclesiology - The Dogmatic Constitution on the Church produced by the Council is entitled Lumen gentium. According to Pope Paul VI, "the most characteristic and ultimate purpose of the teachings of the Council" is the universal call to holiness: John Paul II calls this "an intrinsic and essential aspect of [the Council Fathers'] teaching on the Church." In his plan for the new millennium, Novo millennio ineunte, John Paul II said that "all pastoral initiatives must be set in relation to holiness" as the first priority of the Church.

3. Scripture and divine relation - the council sought to revive the central role of Scripture in the theological and devotional life of the Church, building upon the work of earlier popes in crafting a modern approach to Scriptural analysis and interpretation. A new approach to interpretation was approved by the bishops. The Church was to continue to provide versions of the Bible in the "mother tongues" of the faithful, and both clergy and laity were to continue to make Bible study a central part of their lives. This affirmed the importance of Sacred Scripture as attested by Providentissimus Deus by Pope Leo XIII and the writings of the Saints, Doctors, and Popes throughout Church history but also approved historically conditioned interpretation of Scripture as presented in Pius XII's 1943 encyclical Divino afflante Spiritu.

4. Bishops - role of the bishops was brought into renewed prominence, especially when seen collectively, as a college that has succeeded to that of the apostles in teaching and governing the Church. This college was headed by the Pope.
- Christianity's relationship to American politics
- the result is "cafeteria" Christianity
- Constantine tied Christianity to the state and forces of violence
- who are your responsibilities to? church or state, peace or Christ?
- policy establishing a particular Christian church as the religion of the state, also known as Caesaropapism
- formulated originally by the Roman emperor Constantine, it was continued in the Byzantine Empire, the Frankish kingdom, the Holy Roman Empire, and numerous states of Europe, being modified in most states since the Protestant Reformation but persisting in some even today
- according to this policy, state and church should form a close alliance so as to achieve mutual objectives.
- refers to those policies said to be enacted, encouraged, or personally favored by Constantine the Great, a 4th-century Roman Emperor
- these include:

1. Constantine's patronage of Christianity
2. practice of state control of or influence over the Church
3. Identification of the Church with the Roman Empire
4. the Church's willingness to use the state's coercive power structures to assist in the Church's mission
5. tendency to exuberance due of the subsequent rise of Christianity, sometimes called Christian triumphalism
6. notion that Constantine received his mandate from God, as in the Divine Right of Kings
7. practice of religious tolerance as mandated in the Edict of Milan
8. doctrines of the Council of Nicaea, which Constantine organized and promoted
9. corruption of Christian doctrine that is alleged to have taken place during or because of the reign of Constantine, sometimes called the Great Apostasy or more particularly the Constantinian shift
10. certain Roman Catholic criticisms of separation of Church and State found, for instance, in the Syllabus of Errors
11. certain Protestant doctrines such as Reconstructionism and Dominionism
- not a synthesis of the other two approaches, a helpful middle ground. Rather, it is a radical alternative
- rejects both the individualism of the conversionists and the secularism of the activists and their common equation of what works with what is faithful
- finds its main political task to lie, not in the personal transformation of individual hearts or the modification of society, but rather in the congregation's determination to worship Christ in all things
- determined to worship God alone "though heavens fall" implies that, if these heavens fall, this church has a principle based on the belief that God is not stumped by such dire situations
- set the principle of being the church above other principles not to thumb noses at results. It is trusting God to give us the rules, which are based on what God is doing in the world to bring about God's good results
- like the conversionist church, also calls people to conversion, but it depicts that conversion as a long process of being baptismally engrafted into a new people, an alternative polis, a countercultural social structure called church
- seeks to influence the world by being the church, that is, by being something the world is not and can never be, lacking the gift of faith and vision, which is ours in Christ
- seeks the visible church, a place, clearly visible to the world, in which people are faithful to their promises, love their enemies, tell the truth, honor the poor, suffer for righteousness, and thereby testify to the amazing community-creating power of God
- has no interest in withdrawing from the world, but it is not surprised when its witness evokes hostility from the world
- moves from the activist church's acceptance of the culture with a few qualifications, to rejection of the culture with a few exceptions
- can participate in secular movements against war, against hunger, and against other forms of inhumanity, but it sees this as part of its necessary proclamatory action
- knows that its most credible form of witness (and the most "effective" thing it can do for the world) is the actual creation of a living, breathing, visible community of faith
- will be a church of the cross. As Jesus demonstrated, the world, for all its beauty, is hostile to the truth. Witness without compromise leads to worldly hostility
- the cross is not a sign of the church's quiet, suffering submission to the powers-that-be, but rather the church's revolutionary participation in the victory of Christ over those powers
- the cross is not a symbol for general human suffering and oppression. Rather, the cross is a sign of what happens when one takes God's account of reality more seriously than Caesar's.
- the cross stands as God's (and our) eternal no to the powers of death, as well as God's eternal yes to humanity, God's remarkable determination not to leave us to our own devices.
- overriding political task of the church is to be the community of the cross
- was a 16th-century Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar
- became the first resident Bishop of Chiapas, and the first officially appointed "Protector of the Indians"
- Chapter 7 "On Confessions: Advice and Rules for Confessors" (assigned reading)
- initially a merchant and owner of enslaved laborers
- came to see the systematic dispossession, torture, and enslavement as a betrayal of the Christian principles used in the rhetoric to justify Spain's imperial conquests
- in 1514 he renounced business concerns, freed his slaves, and began to speak out against the oppression of native peoples
- he joined the Dominican Order, yet even they deemed him radical
- in 1542 the passage of the New Laws occurred, which abolished slavery and the worst aspects of the colonial system; the colonial authorities opposed the laws
- wrote A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, which talked about the atrocities of the conquistadors pulled from eyewitness reports
- in a brief manual of instructions by las Casas there are procedures on the administration of confessional rites to those who gained from colonial conquests and subjugation
- "On Confessions" targeted the encomienda system in which colonists were granted land and control over their inhabitants in return for service to Spain's imperial adventures
- the application of the requirements of spiritual purification were backed by the threat of eternal damnation for those who directly and/or indirectly had the blood of native peoples on their hands
- led to a great public debate; Las Casas vs. de Sepulveda, a spokesman with colonial interests
- "On Confessions" put forth 12 rules:

1. Concerns three classes (conquistadors, settlers, and merchants), but focuses on the conquistadors. If they assert themselves as faithful Christians desiring to leave life without offending God they need to choose a confessor as a secular or religious priest, give them complete power over their hacienda, declare all conquests, entrust all taken from the natives, free any slaves owned, ask their pardon, repay them for their enslavement, revoke any other will made prior to confession, make an oath to keep confession as their last testament if recovery from illness occurs, abide by the confessor's rules, and renounce any hindering rules.

2. Confessor hears the confession of penitent, including all sins and abominations they caused to the name of Christ and his holy faith leading to the damnation of Indian souls

3. Confessor takes inventory of all goods of penitent and distributes them throughout the oppressed victims, their heirs, or to the common good of the villages

4. Heirs and sons receive none of the inheritance or hacienda of the penitent except what confessor deems suitable for their nourishment

5. If not in danger of death, confessor and penitent come to an agreement to remove all doubt and place the penitent's conscience in a sure state. The penitent will sign a public document agreeing to the confessor's orders concerning all his hacienda, even if in entirety for restitution, pledging all goods in the same manner.

6. Confessor investigates and determines penitent's richness, including living wage income to assess the penitent's cost of living, allowing them to keep that, nothing more. Confessor moderates future spending and lowers the dowries of their daughters to that of someone of low status. Penitent must may tributes, not take anymore, and remain in the land for the remaining years of their life if all the aggrieved and heirs are dead.

7. Settlers must give restitution to the Indians aggrieved, their heirs, or villages. There is no manner in which taking tributes from Indians is just; bondage and slavery is against the divine law, all natural law, and the law of nations.

8. If the settler is healthy the confessor will have them work to teach natives and have them indoctrinated by religious Orders' members. This also applies to Spanish miners and ranchers.

9. Concerning Indians possessed as slaves, the penitent is ordered by the confessor to free the enslaved by public act before a notary and pay them for their work and time. If prior slaves were sold, the penitent must repurchase the sold slaves ("become a slave to free a slave") so that the gravity of their sin will be known.

10. If the penitent is married and slaves are held jointly, he must free his half and induce his wife to free hers as well. She, at the time of his death, is disposed to free and pay the Indians.

11. Merchants of Arms are determined by confessor to have mortally sinned and must pay restitution for the actions of the conquistadors. They participated and caused those evils with awareness of their actions. The penitent must pay restitution for all goods sold.

12. Confessor determines the penitent's purpose in the future as being to never again conquer or make war against the Indians as there was never a reason to do so initially anyways and now. The penitent is never to go to Peru as there is where there are tyrants in rebellion against the King.

- established measure of justice for indigenous inhabitants of the New World that Columbus had "discovered"
- horrified by the brutality of the Spanish colonial rule
- see term "encomienda-doctrina system"
- Resident Aliens (1989); Chapter 2: "Christian Politics in the New World"
- Stanley Hauerwas: an American theologian, ethicist, and public intellectual
- William Willimon: an American theologian and bishop in the United Methodist Church who served the North Alabama Conference
- argue that Christianity is mostly a matter of politics-politics as defined by the gospel
- the call to be part of the gospel is a joyful call to be adopted by an alien people, to join a countercultural phenomenon, a new polis called church
- the challenge of the gospel is not the intellectual dilemma of how to make an archaic system of belief compatible with modern belief systems
- the challenge of Jesus is the political dilemma of how to be faithful to a strange community, which is shaped by a story of how God is with us
- challenge the assumption, so prevalent at least since Constantine, that the church is judged politically by how well or ill the church's presence in the world works to the advantage of the world
- wrong to assume that American church's primary task is to underwrite American democracy
- in society each person is his or her own tyrant
- when war and injustice arise we cease testifying that the world is in God's hands and instead take matters into our own
- the church does not exist to ask what is needed for a smooth-running world and is not judged on its usefulness as a "supportive institution" and clergy as members of a "helping profession"
- Niebuhr holds the stance that politics determine theology and that there is a call to accept the "culture" and politics in the name of unity of God's creating and redeeming activity; this endorses Constantinian social strategy
- pluralism in theology is an ideology for justifying the alleged pluralism of American culture
- see terms "activist church, conversionist church, and confessing church"
- a Roman Catholic feminist theologian
- author: Quest for the Living God
- the book was hailed for expounding on "new ways to think and speak about God within the framework of traditional Catholic beliefs and motifs."
- it became popular in churches and was adopted as a text for many university religion courses, but in 2011 the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops' (USCCB) Committee on Doctrine issued a doctrinal evaluation of the book that concluded it did not correspond with "authentic Catholic teaching."
- the public criticism by the bishops created "a substantial boon in sales of Quest," and frayed already strained relations between the church hierarchy and Catholic theologians
- Johnson has been criticized by some Catholic groups, such as the Cardinal Newman Society, because of her support for giving women greater authority in the church and her willingness to speak at meetings of Catholics who disagree with the church on such issues as the church's condemnation of same-sex marriage
- The evaluation equates Johnson's modern theism to an Age of "Enlightenment deist notion of God that contains some elements, though now misrepresented, of a traditional Catholic understanding of God."
- "The false presupposition" in Quest for a Living God, according to the doctrinal evaluation, "is the conviction that all names for God are metaphors."
- The panentheism in Quest for a Living God "lacks any characteristic that would constitute a real difference between it and pantheism."

panentheism: the belief that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and also extends beyond time and space
pantheism: the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose as all-encompassing, immanent god or that theism is all and all is theism

- Johnson, according to the doctrinal evaluation "employs standards from outside the faith to criticize and to revise in a radical fashion the conception of God revealed in Scripture and taught by the Magisterium."
- the doctrinal evaluation concluded "that the doctrine of God presented in Quest for the Living God does not accord with authentic Catholic teaching on essential points."
- the timing, tone, and substance of the doctrinal evaluation impacted not only Johnson but, according to the National Catholic Reporter, "At the heart of the severe condemnation of Quest for the Living God... is an unresolved theological conflict that revealed a rift between mainstream Catholic theologians and U.S. bishops.... Seldom has the theologian/bishop rift been on display so publically as it has been in the criticisms and defenses involved in the episcopal Quest for the Living God assessment."
- Johnson had been viewed as a leader of feminist scholars who dissect how cultural biases among biblical writers may have affected women's approved roles in Christian religious tradition.
- Catholic theologians have engaged in such issues as standard academic subjects, understanding ancient texts in their historic and cultural contexts.
- but the doctrinal evaluation of Quest for a Living God signaled a chill on this line of inquiry.
- The New York Times noted: "Many on the left and the right agree on one point: The bishops, who have already shut off discussion about ordaining women, are signaling that other long-debated questions about gender in the church - the choice of pronouns in prayers, the study of the male and female aspects of God - are substantially off-limits as well."
- in particular, the bishops had protested Johnson's discussion of female images for God without giving what they viewed as sufficient attention to the primacy of masculine imagery for God.
- was an American theologian, best known for his advocacy of black theology and black liberation theology.
- his 1969 book, Black Theology and Black Power, provided a new way to comprehensively define the distinctiveness of theology in the black church.
- Cone's work was influential from the time of the book's publication, and his work remains influential today.
- his work has been both utilized and critiqued inside and outside the African-American theological community
- the hermeneutic, or interpretive lens, for James Cone's theology starts with the experience of African Americans, and the theological questions he brings from his own life.
- he incorporates the powerful role of the Black church in his life, as well as racism experienced by African Americans
- methodology for answering the questions raised by the African American experience is a return to Scripture, and particularly to the liberative elements such as the Exodus-Sinai tradition and the life of Jesus.
- Scripture is not the only source which shapes his theology, as in response to criticism from other black theologians (including his brother, Cecil), Cone began to make greater use of resources native to the African American Christian community for his theological work, including slave spirituals, the blues, and the writings of prominent African-American thinkers such as David Walker, Henry McNeal Turner, and W. E. B. Du Bois.
- his theology developed further in response to critiques by black women, leading Cone to consider gender issues more prominently and foster the development of womanist theology, and also in dialogue with Marxist analysis and the sociology of knowledge
- formulates a theology of liberation from within the context of the Black experience of oppression, interpreting the central kernel of the Gospels as Jesus' identification with the poor and oppressed, the resurrection as the ultimate act of liberation
- Cone argues for God's own identification with "blackness":

"The black theologian must reject any conception of God which stifles black self-determination by picturing God as a God of all peoples. Either God is identified with the oppressed to the point that their experience becomes God's experience, or God is a God of racism.... The blackness of God means that God has made the oppressed condition God's own condition. This is the essence of the Biblical revelation. By electing Israelite slaves as the people of God and by becoming the Oppressed One in Jesus Christ, the human race is made to understand that God is known where human beings experience humiliation and suffering....Liberation is not an afterthought, but the very essence of divine activity" (A Black Theology of Liberation, pp. 63-64).

- he retains his earlier strong critique of the White church and white man for ignoring or failing to address the problem of race
- some scholars of black theology noted that controversial quotes by Wright may not necessarily represent black theology.
- Cone responded to these alleged controversial comments by noting that he was generally writing about historic white churches and denominations that did nothing to oppose slavery and segregation rather than any white individual
- the 266th and current Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State.
- the first Jesuit pope, the first from the Americas, the first from the Southern Hemisphere, and the first pope from outside Europe since the Syrian Gregory III, who reigned in the 8th century
- has been noted for his humility, emphasis on God's mercy, concern for the poor and commitment to interfaith dialogue.
- credited with having a less formal approach to the papacy than his predecessors, for instance choosing to reside in the Domus Sanctae Marthae guesthouse rather than in the papal apartments of the Apostolic Palace used by his predecessors.
- due to both his Jesuit and Ignatian aesthetic, he is known for favoring simpler vestments void of ornamentation, including refusing the traditional papal mozzetta cape upon his election, choosing silver instead of gold for his piscatory ring, and keeping the same pectoral cross he had as cardinal.
- maintains that the Church should be more open and welcoming.
- does not support unbridled capitalism, Marxism, or Marxist versions of liberation theology.
- maintains the traditional views of the Church regarding abortion, marriage, ordination of women, and clerical celibacy.
- opposes consumerism, overdevelopment, and supports taking action on climate change, a focus of his papacy with the promulgation of Laudato si'.
- in international diplomacy, he helped to restore full diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba.
- since the publication of Amoris laetitia in 2016, Francis has faced increasingly open criticism from theological conservatives, particularly on the question of admitting civilly divorced and remarried Catholics to Communion.
- described environmental concerns as a great contemporary challenge and voiced opposition to deforestation.
- believes that development should respect what Christians see as creation, and that exploiting the earth is sinful.
- told the Second International Conference on Nutrition, held in Rome by the Food and Agriculture Organization, that a lack of protection for the ecology may generate problems
- 18 June 2015, Pope Francis issued a papal encyclical called Laudato si' on climate change, care for the environment, and sustainable development.
- the encyclical, although dated 24 May 2015, was officially made public on 18 June 2015.
- sets apart the basic human needs and appetites. - considers that the former are small and non-negotiable, and that the latter are potentially unlimited.
- although he asks for the use of renewable energy instead of conventional fuels, he thinks that it would not be enough unless society turns down the unlimited appetites of consumerism.
- this project was opposed by Vatican conservatives, Catholic conservatives, and the US evangelical movement.
- in the encyclical, Francis states "The Earth, our home, is beginning to look like an immense pile of filth."
- see term "ecological conversion" for definition and meaning