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-BIOLOGICAL male/female organs including chromosomal sex & sexual behavior
-With hermaphrodites, one genitalia system is typically more fully developed than the other (≠"true" hermaphrodite)


PSYCHOLOGICAL and sociocultural meanings added to biological sex (by society)

Gender Identity

-"How do you think of yourself?"
-Self identification-man or woman?

Gender Role

-Varies based on culture/society
-Societal expectations for normal and appropriate male and female behavior

(Less Variance in Sex and more in Gender)

-Masculine: Math & Science, and male-female difference is usually more significant in industrialized societies. This emphasizes the role of society.

Sexual Orientation

Primary erotic attraction


Gender identity doesn't match gonads. genitals, or internal accessory organs. However, gender identity usually goes with sex.


Individuals who cross-dress for emotional and/or sexual gratification
-'Trans'=change; 'vestire'=clothing


Combining typically male (assertive, athletic) with female (yielding, nurturing) characteristics
-'Andro'=male; 'gyn'=female
-No clear line of demarkation on continuum; only society-grey area=androgyny (less in rigid societies, more in progressive societies- ex. women in USA have jobs in same areas as men)

Male v. Female

-Chromosomes-XY v. XX
-Gonads-Testes v. Ovaries
-Hormones-Androgens (testosterone) v. Estrogen
-External Genitals-Penis,scrotum v. Labia, Clitoris, vaginal opening
-Internal Accessory Organs: Prostate, seminal vesicles, vas deferens v. Vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, cervic
-Secondary Sex Characteristics: Beard, low voice, sperm emission v. Breasts, menstruation
-Sexual orientation: Heterosexual, bisexual for both; gay-men, lesbian-women
-Gender identity- SELF-DEFINED; universal- Male identifies as male, Female as female
-Gender role- SOCIALLY DEFINED; variance- Masculine v. Feminine gender role

Internal & Exernal Sex Organs

-Both start off from undifferentiated tissue, which can develop into either the male or female for.
-Presence of XX or Xy chromosoms "tell" it which way to go; depends on the presence/absence of testosterone
-Glans of penis: Clitoris of vagina
-Scrotum : Vagina

Male & Female Internal Sex Organs

-Early in development, humans have an undifferentiated gonad and BOTH the undeveloped male internal system (Wolfian) and the female internal system (Mullerian)
-Testes secretes both testosterone and MIS/MIF.
-The testosterone causes the development of the Wolfian system. The MIS causes the Mullerian system to wither; male system developed while female system goes away in a typical male
-Female by default
-If you're a female still in development and take away estrogen, female sex characteristics will still develop w/o it

Male & Female External Sex Organs

-Early in development, humans have undifferentiated external sex organs
-Testes secretes testosterone--> metabolized into dihydrotestosterone in external sex organs--> masculization & development of male structures
-Without testosterone and MIS from testicles, development is female

Testosterone Info

-In hyenas, circulating testosterones are elevated during development and believed to masculize the female brain and clitoris (resembles a penis).
-In humans, testosterone crosses into the brain and is there aromatized to estrogen--> estrogen masculizes the male brain. (Females have high levels of alpha-fetoprotein which binds circulating estrogen in the female, preventing it from crossing into the brain)

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