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Bob Jones Earth Science Chapter 22
Terms in this set (20)
astronomical unit (AU)
A unit of distance equal to the earth's average distance from the sun; a useful unit for measuring distances within or near the solar system.
The entire span of electromagnetic wavelengths that the sun emits; includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, x-rays, and gamma rays.
A nuclear change where small atomic nuclei are forcefully combined to make larger nuclei, releasing tremendous amounts of energy as nuclear mass is converted to heat and light; the process that fuels stars.
The visible surface of the sun. Temperature ranges from 4800 and 6000 degrees Celsius.
The lowest layer of the sun's atmosphere, starting at the photosphere and extending out to 2000 km from the sun's surface.
The hot outer atmosphere of the sun that extends far out into space to become solar wind. Temperatures rise into the millions of degrees. It is the locations of solar prominences.
A stream of solar plasma that rises into the corona from the chromosphere, then gradually falls back. Many are looped or arched as they follow strong local magnetic fields produced by sunspots.
The flow of mostly protons, electrons, and small atomic nuclei ejected from the sun outward into the solar system; extends as much as three times the radius of the solar system from the sun.
A small, cool area on the sun's photosphere; though still very hot, appears dark next to the full brightness of the photosphere; associated with intense magnetic field disturbance at the sun's surface.
A sudden explosion of the plasma from the sun's surface that emits a burst of energetic rays and particles into space; very dangerous to humans and orbiting satellites.
A bright streak that radiates from some craters on the moon's surface; in general, a geometric description of something that moves in a straight line away from a source, such as an electromagnetic wave, especially atomic and nuclear radiation.
A broad, lowland plain on the moon made of hardened lava; darker and more level than surrounding highland areas.
A long, narrow valley on the moon; can be straight, sinuous, or arcuate; believed to have originated from various tectonic processes.
A sun's apparent path among the stars as observed from Earth; equivalent to the plane of the earth's orbit.
A motion of an astronomical body around another astronomical body that is the center of an orbital system.
The spin of an object around an imaginary axis that passes through its center.
The regular, repeatedly changing appearance of the shape of the lighted face of the moon as seen from Earth.
A line or edge separating the light and dark sides of any astronomical body.
An astronomical event that occurs when the sun, earth, and moon are aligned so that the moon blocks a portion of the sunlight falling on the earth; can only occur at a new moon.
An astronomical event that occurs when the sun, earth, and moon are aligned so that the earth blocks the sunlight falling on the moon; can occur only at a full moon.
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