110 terms

Clin Med 3 Final

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Antibody
Serum protein produced by B-Lymphocytes in response to antigens to fight off potential infection.
Antigen
a substance recognized by the immune system as foreign and elicits a specific antibody response.
Acquired Immunity
Immunity that is not present at birth, but is learned.
Acute
Having severe signs and short course of 12-24 hours.
Bacteria
An infectious, one-celled organism that lives in or on another organism, killed with antibiotics.
Benign
A localized, slow-growing, harmless tumor.
Clinical Pathology
Pathology that involves the study of body fluids.
Congenital
Present at or existing from the time of birth.
Chronic
Disease or illness persisting for a long time.
Caseous
Type of necrosis with cheese like appearance of tissues.
Congestion
Excessive or abnormal accumulation of blood or other fluid in a body part or vessel.
Erythrocyte
A red blood cell.
Etiology
The cause of a disease
Edema
An abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitial and inter-cellular body spaces.
Emboli
Part of a blood clot that circulates in the bloodstream, lodges, then blocks blood flow.
Erosion
A shallow or superficial ulceration.
Fungus
Any spore-producing organisms feeding on organic matter.
Gangrene
Type of coagulation necrosis that happens as a direct result of loss of bloodflow to an area.
Hematology
The study of blood.
Hemorrhage
The escape of blood from a ruptured blood vessel.
Hemopericardium
Effusion of blood in the pericardial sac.
Hemostasis
The clotting of blood.
Histology
Microscopic examination of tissue from a diseased animal.
Incubation Period
The interval between the time of exposure and the appearance of the 1st clinical sign.
Immunology
The study of antibodies produced to fight disease.
Ischemia
Lack of blood supply to an area.
Lesion
Referring to a would, sore, ulcer, tumor, cataract and any other tissue damage/injury.
Metastatic
Cancer that has spread from the primary site to a site farther away.
Melena
Dark, tarry blood in the stool.
Malignant
A type of tumor that will metastasize the other areas of the body.
Necropsy
Examination of a body after death.
Purulent
Exudate that is cloudy yellow, white, or green which contains many WBC's.
Pathology
The study of the causes of disease, how they develop, and their effects on the body.
Plasma
Thee clear fluid that can be separated from unclotted blood.
Serum
The clear fluid that can be separated from clotted blood.
Toxicology
The science or study of poisons.
Thrombus
A blood clot formed within a vessel,
Ulcer
A lesion that is eroding away the skin or mucous membrane (skin, mucosal, cornea).
Virus
A Very small infectious agent requiring a living host cell to live. Antibiotics will not kill them.
Zoonosis
Disease or infection spread from animal to human.
Necrosis
Death of cells.
Calcification
Abnormal deposition of calcium and other minerals within a tissue.
Diffuse
A lesion that involves an entire organ or tissue.
Hyperemia
An active process in which the arterioles fill up with blood.
Vasodilation
The heat and redness associated with inflammation are cause by
Serosanguinous
Exudate which contains large amounts of fserum.
Fibrous
Exudate which contains a large amount of fibrin.
Infarction
Occurs when a thrombus/emboli causes tissue necrosis.
Epistaxis
Nose bleed
Hematemesis
Vomiting blood
Petechia
Small, pinpoint hemorrhages on the surface of a tissue.
Hematoma
A localized, raised collection of blood due to a break in a blood vessel.
Normovolemic Shock
Type of shock that is due to the collection of blood in the capillaries, causing an insufficient amount of blood to circulate through the rest of the body.
Hypovolemic Shock
Type of shock that is due to loss of a significant amount of blood.
Pathogenesis
The cellular events and reaction that occur in the development of disease.
Rubor, Tumor, Calor, Dolor
Four cardinal signs of inflammation.
Ways to classify an infarct.
White, red, bland, or septic.
IgM
Antibody is produced during the primary immune response.
IgG
Antibody in the secondary response.
False
Innate or non-specific immunity has memory.
True
Active or specific immunity has memory.
Carcinogens
Physical agents, viruses, or chemicals that can cause mutation of cells, resulting in tumor formation.
Benign Tumor
Curative with complete surgical excision.
Dry, wet, and Gas
Types of gangrene
Atrophy
A decrease in the size of individual cells leading to a decrease in the size of a tissue.
Healing Day 1
Defect fills with fibrin; blood clot forms.
Healing Day 2
Neutrophils break down clot and phagocytize bacteria, dead cells, and debris.
Healing Day 3
Macrophages infiltrate wound to remove fibrin and cellular debris; this phase can last for several weeks in contaminated wounds.
Healing Day 4
Capillary bud in-growth beings at ends of damaged vessels.
Healing Day 5
Collagen produced to form fibrovascular tissue; aka epithelial regeneration
False
A cancer patient should always be fed a high fat, high calorie diet.
CAV2, CAV1
Dogs are vaccinated with ____, but they are infected with ____.
"Feline AIDS"
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus
Poor
A cat with Feline Infectious Peritonitis has a ____ prognosis.
10 days
Quarantine length for a healthy dog that has been exposed to rabies but is currently vaccinated.
Coronavirus
F.I.P.
Cerebellar Hypoplasia
Parvovirus commonly affects rapidly growing cells and in kittens it often causes:
Retrovirus
Feline Leukemia
"Blue-Eye"
A Clinical sign that can occur a few days after the acute signs of Canine Adenovirus-1 resolve. Can also occur as a result of vaccination. Usually resolved on its own without any treatment.
Feline Herpesvirus-1
Causative agent of Feline Rhinotracheitis
Non-Enveloped
Type of viruses that are more difficult to kill.
Staphylococcus Aureus
Pyoderma is usually caused by.
Macule
Circumscribed, nonpalatable spot up to 1 cm in diameter characterized by a change in color of the skin.
Papule
A small, solid elevation of the skin up to 1 cm that can be palpated as a single mass.
Patch
Coalescence of papules.
Pustule
A small, well circumscribed elevation of the epidermis that is fulled with pus.
Vescicle(<1cm) or Bulla (>1cm)
A sharply circumscribed elevation of the epidermis filled with clear fluid.
Wheal
A sharply circumscribed raised lesion consisting of edema that usually appears and disappears within minutes or hours.
Nodules
Circumscribed, solid elevation > 1cm in diameter that usually extends into the deepest layers of the skin.
Tumor
Large mass that may involve any structure of the skin or subcutaneous tissue.
Scale
An accumulation of loose fragments of the horny layer of the skin. dry, flaky skin.
Follicular Casts
Accumulation of keratin and follicular material that adheres to the hair shaft. Looks like a blackhead on the hair follicle.
Comedo
Dilated hair follicle filled with cornified cells and sebaceous material. Feline Acne.
Epidermal Collarette
Type of scale arranged in a circular rim of loose keratin flakes. Dried up pustule.
Scar
Fibrous tissue that has replaced the damaged dermis or subcutaneous tissue. Alopecic, atrophic, and depigmented.
Excoriation
Erosion or ulcers caused by scratching, biting, or rubbing. Self-produced as a result of pruritus.
Erosion (skin)
Shallow epidermal defect that does not penetrate the basal laminar zone and heals without charring. Not as deep as an ulcer.
Ulcer (skin)
A Break in the continuity of the epidermis with exposure of the underlying dermis.
Fissure
Linear cleavage into or through the epidermis caused by disease or injury. Distemper (Hard Pad Disease).
Lichenification
Thickening or hardening of the skin characterized by an exaggeration of the superficial skin markings. "Elephant Skin"
Chlorhexidine 0.5-4.0%
Shampoo recommended for bacterial and yeast infections. Duration is about 48 hours.
Povidone-Iodine
Shampoo for bacterial and fungal infections. Residual effect is 4-6 hours. Inactivated by organic debris.
Benzoyl Peroxide
Excellent for degreasing and removing scales. Used in oily conditions with bacterial infections. Can be irritating/drying.
Triclosan
Antiseptic added to some antiseborrheic shampoos
Ethyl Lactate
Mild, non-drying antibacterial and antiseborrheic agent.
Miconazole/Ketoconazole
Treatment of yeast/ringworm infections. residual 2 days. Recommended use every 24 hrs for ringworm and every 48 hours for yeast.
Selenium Sulfide
Used for greasy skin/yeast infections. Decreases scaling. Do not use in cats due to delicate skin.
Sulfur/Lime Dip
Best for ringworm. Very potent odor. Can stain clothing orange.
Tar Shampoo
Degreasing and decreases scaling. Can be irritating, so use condition with product. Not an anti-bacterial. Do not use in cats. *Last resort!
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