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Chapter 12 Exercise Science in the 21st Century
Terms in this set (27)
research investigations conducted to identify factors that affect the health and disease of populations
comparison test of a medical intervention vs. a control condition, placebo condition, or the standard medical treatment for a patient condition
the process of enabling people to increase their control over improvements in their health
Important Epidemiological Studies
- Framingham Heart studies with focused on why people are having heart disease and strokes
- Harvard alumni study (looked at the health at Harvard students)
- Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study
What are risk factors that cannot be changed for CVD?
Increasing age, male sex, family history, race, postmenopausal
What are risk factors that can be changed or modified for CVD?
Smoking, high blood cholesterol, uncontrolled HBP, physical inactivity, obesity and overweight, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, high C-reactive protein, uncontrolled stress or anger
What is the primary risk factor for CHD, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, & cancer?
What is beneficial for helping to maintain a healthy body weight & strengthening muscles, bones, & joints?
PA & exercise
What is the recommendations in the activity pyramid for children? (Everyday activities, aerobics/rec activities, flexibility/strength, & inactivity?)
Everyday Activities: As often as possible
Aerobics/Rec. Activities: 3-5 times a week
Flexibility/Strength: 2-3 times a week
Inactivity: Cut down
HERITAGE Family Study
looked at the human genotype to find out how that influenced their health
What is NHANES?
National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey
goal is to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the U.S, allows health planners to detect the extent various health problems and risk factors have changed in the U.S population over time
Info collected form epidemiologic research
supports subsequent research, used to develop healthcare planks and policies to guide future decision making, allows for recommendations of programs to enhance the health and wellness of individuals
What programs are designed to enhance the health of our nation's population?
Healthy People 2010 & 2020 programs
Individuals who are not healthy are at risk for what?
- Increase risk of premature morbidity and mortality
- Poor quality of life
- Increase medical and healthcare expenses
- Lost time from work
What are 3 critical areas for enhancing health?
- Future research
- Program Development
- Policy Initiatives & Advocacy
What research areas can reduce risk in health & disease?
Exercise physiology, clinical exercise physiology, athletic training and sports medicine, exercise and sport nutrition, exercise and sport psychology, motor behavior, and clinical and sport biomechanics
- Genetic influence on disease and health promotion
- Mechanisms involved with improvements in physiologic function
- Role of physical inactivity in physiological function
Clinical exercise physiology
- Role of exercise and reduction of disease risk including CVD, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and metabolic syndrome
- Promotion of effective rehabilitation programs for diseased individuals
Athletic training and sports medicine
- Development of effective treatment and rehabilitation strategies for individuals injured during participation in physical activity and exercise
- Further development of medical interventions that enhance physical activity in health and disease conditions
Exercise and sport nutrition
- Role of nutrition in health promotion
- Efficacy of speciality diets in weight management programs
Exercise and sport psychology
- Development of effective strategies for promoting behavioral change and enhancing exercise adherence
- Role of behavior in promoting physical activity and exercise
- Understanding how individuals with differing levels of ability or development can effectively participate in exercise
- How does neurophysiological functioning affect health and/or prevent disease
Clinical and sport biomechanics
- Developing effective movement patterns for individuals with biomechanics limitations
- Prevention of injuries and rehabilitation
Sports and athletic competition require athletes to perform activities that last how long?
From a few seconds to several hours and sometimes days
Athletes are required to coordinate what?
Various systems and components of mind and body into an effort that results in their best individual performance
Exercise Science & Sport/Athletic Performance encompass what areas?
1. Exercise physiology
2. Sport psychology
3. Sport nutrition
4. Athletic training & sports medicine
5. Sport biomechanics
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